Manual Mil Galaxias en un Mundo : Poesía de un cantautor (Spanish Edition)

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Colour, choreography, movement, in brief; everything in both pieces is undeniably Mediterranean. He had given them another life, they were independent and at the same time tied to me, yet they had acquired a new palpitation, they had taken a different road. There is something in Arenal that has always fascinated me: the treatment of the Majorcan work songs which I sing a capella. These are songs which form part of our earliest Majorcan tradition, but which are no longer sung where they come from or what they were created for, that is the work in the fields.

However, when Nacho used them for his choreographies he gave them back this role of unique pieces, as if they were precious stones. I will never tire of repeating that these choreographies of Nacho Duato have been one of the most precious artistic presents I have ever received. I believe they belong to that type of things which goes hand in hand with the most deeply felt emotions and it is hard to explain with words. Gnawa is the name that receives in Morocco and other parts of the Magreb the members of different mystic Muslim brotherhoods characterized by their sub-saharian origin and the use of song, dances and syncretic rituals as a mean to reach ecstasy.

This term also refers to a musical style of sub-saharian reminiscences practised by these brotherhoods or by musicians inspired by them. It is considered one of the main Moroccan Folklore genres. This horror has come to form a part of our normal day to day lives. On the 10th of December , the General Assembly of the United Nations passed and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, thus establishing that freedom, justice and peace throughout the world are inherently based on the recognition of a series of equal and inalienable rights common to all.

Conscious of the constant violation of this declaration as perpetrated by governments and leaders in the name of peace, religion, ambition or revenge, Nacho Duato has, through the medium of dance, felt the need to denounce such actions that only serve to heap shame upon humanity. In this piece I compare man to rusting iron, the very soul itself becoming scrap metal.

I would like to clearly state that under no circumstances can torture ever be justifiable. Fear dominates the weakest element; uncertainty drives him insane as his torturer humiliates him, destroying him psychologically and physically. The whole choreography resembles a heartfelt shout; the dancers move alone in their own spaces, reflecting the loneliness of the victim, whilst at the same time I have used the chorus to express the idea of brutality. Fear outlines the figures in the surrounding space, stylised like a scream which is drowned by oppression.

I asked them for a score which would reflect the most brutal aspect of the subject in hand: the noise of metal on metal, of prisons, of people being hit and so on. Hevel Hevelym … hakol Hevel: Vanitas vanitatum, omnia vanitas. According to the biblical story, his was the first death of a human being. The meaning of the word is expressed symbolically but clearly in his name. It was originally made during a workshop at Nederlands Dans Theater. In these songs, the Spaniards direct a supplication to God. Choreographer Nacho Duato has portrayed this appeal in the powerful movements of three couples, who are occupied with the sowing, planting and threshing of the barren Catalonian land.

They grieve about the lack of rain but try to keep high spirits in spite of this. Desperately but proudly they continue with their work, which is translated into a dynamic and expressive, yet wonderfully naive piece of dance. I have attempted to impregnate myself with the personality of that great writer, of how he lived and what he felt for his fellow men and the world around him. Infinite Garden is not based on any specific work by Chekhov.

I did not want situations, references or anecdotes related to them to constitute the basis for my work, which is definitively abstract. I have sought inspiration in his world, his personality and work to obtain a specific, personal vision of it all. My first choice for the music was four hymns by Alfred Schnitke, both due to their intrinsic beauty, as well as due to considering them in tune with the tone of Chekhov. I also asked Pedro Alcalde and Sergio Caballero to create original music to shelter these hymns and locate them in a sound architecture to provide a backdrop to the overall ballet.

The choreography does not use the words and texts literally, but it does always consider their extreme musical value. The set, designed by Jaffar Chalabi, may transport us to unending very different sceneries. We may be viewing the skyline of Moscow or the landscape of the steppes. We may imagine the roofs of the houses or also a mountain. When the structure is placed at ground level, it also allows us to remember the space and suggest more intimate ambiances, such as the room where Chekhov wrote, or even an alley from one of his tales.

When the structure is raised and suspended at a certain height, we may view open spaces in nature, landscapes and woods. However, it always maintains the abstract nature that this creation has always intended.

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That is the ample land that Chekhov spent his whole life observing, describing and cultivating with the care with which one cares for a garden. His clear vision of the fragile nature and complexity of human relations has reached us thanks to his work. The title, InfiniteGarden, refers to that. I also consider that the work of all great spirits is infinite, that it never ends and will never die. The choreographer recalls the spell of flamenco employing the confrontation between two worlds: that of Kabuki and that of Flamenco "bulerias": traditional Andalusian song and dance.

This solo is structured in two parts: in the first part, the dancer's movements remind us of the world of Kabuki. And, in the second part, one can appreciate the influence of the art of flamenco, accentuated by the wardrobe skirts and flounces. Its name is taken from the initial letters of the declaration and it is a time to reflect and forgive. And it is precisely this composition that originally inspired Duato to speak to us in his choreography of the ephemeral character of existence, of human frailty, as perishable and fleeting as the life cycle of a flower. For Nacho Duato the need to both experience and express movement in an intensive manner has always been an important reason to dance.

With this ballet Nacho Duato wanted to create an intensely personal piece of work. He began with only a basic idea and let it develop in the studio with a groupof personally-selected dancers. In their works these artists portray mankind suffering. Nacho Duato evokes dramatic images by means of violent movements. The ballet shows that this happens time and time again. It is usually music which inspires me when creating a new ballet. On this occasion, the sea and its light, fire and its meaning in our culture, as well as the fertility of the land have been my sources of inspiration to create this choreography dedicated to the Valencian Community.

With this work I would like to express intimate feelings and images: the presence of my roots whose very essence even after having been abroad for long periods of time and influenced by various other cultures I have always felt in my veins. I have avoided using folk elements, historic references, anecdotes or allusions to characters, trying to communicate, through movement, the sensuality of the landscape, the sensitivity of its inhabitants and their uninhibited worship of the ephemeral, so characteristic of this Community. Avoiding the stereotype has meant doing without the artifice of music, costumes and scenography in order to achieve simplification.

This may seem somewhat cold if compared with the exuberance in the daily lives of our people; but I do hope to express that vitality through movement. In order to achieve this, I have used percussion and wind sounds always wrapped upin the constant sound of water. I did this not only because they identify Valencian culture, but also because they have helped me to find movements closer to the earth, of a telluric strength, and therefore to get a better contrast for the most delicate movements.

I have simply tried to retrace my roots and those of my ancestors. I have tried to peel the orange to get to its flesh, the ludic and sensual spirit of this land, always intimately related to the sea. I dedicate this ballet to all those who, like myself, feel complicity with the Mediterranean. World Premiere in Weimar at the Viehauktionshalle on the 23rd of April, A ballet was commissioned to Nacho Duato which somehow had some special link with the city. For Duato the answer could only be one: Bach. This first part is characterized by a choreographic variety and diversity which matches the linked different musical excerpts by Bach.

Continuos changes in costumes and settings highlight visually this musical collage. Musically speaking it is based mainly on the Arte of Fugue. Vielfaeltigkeit, i. The Baroque refers not to an essence but rather to an operative function to a trait. It endlessly produces folds. The Baroque trait twists turns its folds, pushing them to infinity fold over fold, one upon the other. The Baroque unfurls all the way to infinity. An architectural conceptions invisions the thematic of Baroque music of J. Bach, through the process of folding. In architecture, the fold provides a model for theories of metamorphosis and covering Bekleidung, Gottfried von Semper.

Folds are maneuverable borders which separate an interior from the exterior, yet also create an interior within the exterior and an exterior within the interior. Considered abstractly, it is only the type of bend -concave or convex- that determines inside and outside, meaning the gender of the space. In this unfixed state, the fold provides a model of transformation. A scaffold set at the back of a stage acting as building retaining a curtain wall, that transforms itself from opened to closed entity.

Baroque architecture is always confronting to principles, a bearing principle and a covering principle. The geometrically ordered scaffold enhances several floors all connected through ramps creating a fluid movement. These ramps represent vertical folding, spatial continuum, all set in diagonal relations dynamic within a rigid structure static. These contractions provide literal models of folds, simulating zones of intervals and densification. CND - Multiplicidad. A passionate energy circulates within this work made up of sequences full of both substance and fluidity.

Its success at its premiere was phenomenal. A plotless work to Villa-Lobos music intended to communicate an intimacy and a feeling for nature that is greater than our contact with other beings. It is scored for the combination of solo organ and intoning voice soprano. It is precisely, the figure of the Virgin as the mother of Jesus Christ, as a link between the divine and eternal, and man and telluric force, what Duato wants to emphasize with this ballet, composed to be danced by ten men and a woman.

His trajectory is unlimited by time and he is still modern today. Duato was inspired by old Spanish music of the 15th and 16th centuries together with some of the most beautiful verses of the Spanish poet Garcilaso de la Vega. In the 15th and 16th centuries dances formed part of the cultural expression of people, including all social hierarchies, and therefore they produced an honest reflection of culture of that time.

These songs were inspired by the very intense, albeit hopeless, relationship between Wagner and Mary Wesendonk which was destined to be broken off. Even though the choreographer does not portray their conflict directly, the images and atmosphere created convey, without doubt, an evocative emotion. Walter Nobbe's stage design plays and important role here. It consists of two large , thick moveable panels, one of whose sides is covered with reflecting material, and the other with images of the shoulders and head of a man and a woman. It is a ballet endowed with enormous intensity, in terms of movement, emotion and staging.

This time Duato has turned to Haiti and the music of Toto Bissainthe, with drive and sway. They express the daily life of the slaves, their longing for Africa, not as a geographical reality, but as a mythical land of freedom. They express their resistance and their refusal: resistance to the colonist, rejection of his politics, his religion, his culture and his language. During the history of Haiti, the face of the master has often changed. Capitalism, developing in Haiti, has transformed the sense of Voodoo. The ethnographer came first, and then the tourist for whom folklore was produced with revived exotic excitement.

That is the moment we sing about. Using the traditional music of Haiti we meet with other musical forms to open a way towards a contemporary music that knows no frontiers. Expressive strength, geometric lines, dynamic use of space and forms, were some of the remarks on the work by Duato. He studied piano in Barcelona and Paris. Throughout his life he was a composer, teacher and soloist.

His works are mainly for the piano and vocal music. Even his earliest works show a new trend in Spanish music. Inclined toward popular tastes, all his music is of an exceptional quality and has an original style. Granados died young. The ship he was travelling in was torpedoed by a German submarine and sank. Although he managed to reach a lifeboat, he saw his wife drowning and jumped back into the sea: they both died. The piece is divided in two acts, based on Prokofiev's music and with the choreography of its Artistic Director, Nacho Duato.

The choreography has been designed faithfully respecting Shakespeare's drama. The general concept of the work, in terms of scenography, costumes, lighting and, of course, choreography, is Nacho Duato's original idea. This is the first ballet in two acts created by Nacho Duato. As he himself admits, the idea of creating a ballet based on this work of Shakespeare's has been in his mind for many years.

The score was completed by the Autumn of but several difficulties arose and the staging of the ballet was postponed. Finally, Prokofiev's score was converted into a ballet for the first time in Brno, then Czechoslovakia, with Viania Psota's choreography, in December , while the Kirov staged it for the first time somewhat later, on the 11th January, , with Leonid Lavrosvsky's choreography. In later years, the ballet's popularity increased irresistibly and was incorporated into the repertoire of all, or practically all, Soviet companies. In Duato's case, he attempts a more humanistic approach to the story of the lovers of Verona, bringing it somehow closer- always through movement- to present-day men and women.

The complexity of the drama lived by the main characters of Shakespeare's tragedy, the whirlwind of ideas and passions, as well as the intensity of feelings, require the ballet to encompass a subtle fusion of choreographical and theatrical languages, giving, as a result, a representation where the characters, emotion and passion are expressed by the ballet dancer's body movements. Duato's work, therefore, focuses on the expression of Shakespeare's romantic drama through dance in its own right and tries to discard all superfluous elements which could relegate to a second place what has always been his priority: expression through movement.

It is therefore a story for all seasons which has something to say to present- day men and women about their reality. In a world where worries of a material kind seem to take over our lives, the human being as such is being relegated to a marginal place within our comprehension of reality. Something seems to place itself between each human being and his conception of himself and other people in their own right. This seems, therefore, to be the right moment to reflect on the human being's essence, as something which preserves its value, despite appearing hidden behind a thick fog composed of factors foreign to its very centre.

The choreograph has maintained the flockore origins which inspired the musical score and has poured them into his ballet, neither in the structure nor in the movement, but in the generating idea of the work and more evidently in the scenography and costumes. This reference appears in the ballet as something symbolic, abstract, as although movements shows an archaic air, the style is absolutely contameporary". The music by Landowski calls for a world where everything turns into a metaphysical speech, through which one can understand life through sounds.

Joy, meditation, sorrow, frustration, desire, all these emotions developed by the eight performers in this ballet have their roots in the Concert pour Ondes Martenot for percussion and string orchestra by the wonderful French composer. Synaphai, a concerto for piano and orchestra composed by Iannis Xenakis, motivated Nacho Duato to express in this ballet the central choreographic idea in a plastic manner.

It has been Duato's intention to highlight human feelings from an essentially individual point of view. The ballet is structured in three parts: In the first one, a groupof eight dancers move in one block, under a strange confusion of voices, narrating in seven different languages but in unison a text written by Duato himself, concerning survival, death, loneliness.


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The movements, with their hieratic touches, remind us of the Egyptian funerary monuments. Xenakis' music is heard in the second part, when the set of dancers breaks upand a series of solos, duos, and trios are performed, full of abrupt and desperate movements. The dancers feel a continuous attraction to the ground, as if it were a force taking hold of them. They try to break free, fighting without success against the wall. In the third part, a pas de deux on music composed by Vangelis opens upan encouraging road.

It's the calm that follows the storm. Nacho Duato did not pretend to present us with a final solution to the human strain and anguish; only an individual answer could lead us to a conclusion. Those points of clarity sketched the double nature of the first note and its evaporation in the movement. Later on, we took care of the mysterious play of alternations, which fix the poetic both in dance and in music. Those and others have been our terms. On the one hand, there is the dancing of a group of men and women motivated by the pure joyfulness of music.

On the other hand, one woman dancer stands apart, dancing alone to four songs which are performed a capella. Thank you, Nacho. The choreographer researches choreographic formulae through the movement and starting from a deep musical knowledge. At the age of six he started his piano studies encouraged by his father, a chorus director and organist.

He received awards for his oboe interpretations for jazz and as a multi-instrumentalist. Jenkins worked, amongst others, with Ronnie Scott and created Nucleus, winning the first prize of Montreal Jazz Festival, in Later, he joined Soft Machine. As in the songs, the choreographer strips the dancing of any evident romantic atmosphere. A new world, with all its possibilities, is revealed in a dark existential scenographic space typical of the 20th century.

Duato shows a universal vital cycle in all its spontaneity, free of unnecessary alignments and ornaments. RT dansomanie: Une "Carmen" en chasse l'autre The programmes and dates appearing on this website are for general guidance only and may be subject to changes. Please make sure you confirm any programmed events with their respective venues, especially dates and times.

There will be the same number of exchange rates to calculate as there were exchange transactions. Then the French company would be bearing the risk. The reserve currency is commonly used in international transactions and often considered a hard currency or safe-haven currency.


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  • Related retail transfer systems facilitate transactions such as automated clearing houses ACH ; automated teller machines ATM ; point-of-sale POS ; telephone bill paying; home banking systems; and credit, debit, and prepaid cards. In order to assist law enforcement in its efforts to target these activities, FinCEN requests that banks check the appropriate box es in the Suspicious Activity Information section and include certain key terms in the narrative section of the SAR.

    These individual transactions may then be batched in order to form larger wholesale transfers, which are the focus of this section. The vast majority of the value of U. FinCEN issues advisories containing examples of "red flags" to inform and assist banks in reporting instances of suspected money laundering, terrorist financing, and fraud. I stand before you now remembering what it felt like to be an undergraduate from Paraguay arriving in Miami for the first time and riding a Greyhound bus to the University of Wyoming. Much of what has happened to me since that interminable trip resulted from my growing up speaking Spanish, French, and Italian at home, and all of it, of course, has been possible only because slowly and painfully I finally managed to persuade listeners that I was indeed speaking the language in which I address you this evening.

    It is the year of the woman after all. We all know each other and are good friends, by the way. Who knows, someday the women of Omaha may be called upon to confirm or deny their designs on the White House. As Hopkins points out, however, the promise of job opportunities or great adventures cannot be the basis for changing how America thinks about foreign language five hundred years after the voyage of Columbus. That task, including the role of the AATSP, must grow from a far more sophisticated and complex argument.

    Perhaps if we blend and cook them a fuego lento for a while we can come up with a prize-winning dish. One great problem for foreign language instruction in America is not geographic isolation, benighted curricula, or the dominance of English as an international language, it is the memories and resultant attitudes of parents. Programs aimed at parents and their influence are rare and deserve more attention and resources. For example, elementary schools need to meet with parents long before decisions about foreign language study are to be made, and even post-secondary orientation programs for parents need to emphasize the value of foreign languages.

    A related problem is our dilemma over what can be accomplished in the usual required period of foreign language study at any educational level. It is the limitations of such programs, even when exemplary, which produce many of the negative parental and societal attitudes we have to contend with 20 years later. Somehow we must either accomplish more, and produce more satisfied veterans, or we must find better ways to explain the value of what we do now, or we must do something different. What we can not afford, however, is just more of the same.

    Ideally, everyone needs competence in at least one foreign language packaged and waiting in the wings, and no one can tell ahead of time when the need for it will arise or for whom. Indeed, the European Community has set a goal that all their students will command two foreign languages by the year There is no good argument that command of foreign language is properly only an elitist concern.

    If we are to take a voyage of rediscovery, we must seek ways to make foreign language competency a common possession rather than an unusual one. We also need to augment tremendously our emphasis on study abroad to combat our geographic and linguistic isolation. From my university we send some 25 to 30 students and established teachers to Mexico for a month each summer, and the progress they make is astounding. We serve only a tiny portion of the people who need the experience, however, and then only in Spanish and only in Mexico. Financial and temporal constraints keep most Americans at home.

    Additional resources just must be found, and greater value must be assigned to study, not merely travel abroad. We need to prepare ourselves to admit and argue better that classroom work alone has serious limitations and that other experiences are essential. If the football team needs a playing field, the chemistry class a laboratory, and the English class a library, we must insist that foreign language students need time abroad. The best place to rediscover a foreign language is on its own home ground.

    Teacher training and competence need to be addressed as well. We must find better ways to persuade certification authorities, college faculties, school administrators, and parents to provide the resources and regulations necessary to ensure that language teachers are fully competent and confortable in their foreign language.

    Whatever it takes to be a good foreign language teacher, one just must know the subject itself well. And our society, influenced by our AATSP organization, just must find better ways to provide the resources and environment for that to happen. It is not a frill which can be canceled in every budget crisis. It is a skill without which we cannot compete well in the next century. It is not possible to sell soap abroad in English when the competition speaks the language and understands the culture of the customer.

    It is not enough to understand the world only in terms of what others tell us of themselves in our language. We must know their world as they do. And finally, it is not enough to focus on the pragmatic goal of two years of Spanish, French, or German for everyone. What we do in the AATSP for the study of Spanish and Portuguese must be multiplied a hundredfold in the near future, and established organizations such as ours must realize an overall responsibility for foreign language instruction which embraces active support for the study of many other languages to the point of useful competence.

    We must help wherever we can. For example, we need to consider seriously a two-year presidency for our organization. It takes time for a new president, no matter how experienced she or he may be, to learn the job and become maximally effective. Nothing demonstrates this better than the understanding some of you have that the president is a mere figurehead -decorative but irrelevant.

    To the extent that perception may have been accurate at times in the past, I assure you we do not need such decoration.

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    What we do need is for the membership to be represented as effectively as possible by their elected representatives. What we do need is for the staff of the association to be maximally responsive to the needs and views of the membership, guided by their elected representatives. The American Association of Teachers of German has a two-year presidency, and the American Association of Teachers of French has just gone to a three-year term.

    We should follow suit. I urge you in the strongest terms to support proposals which would enhance the control of the membership over their own organization, but particularly one which would extend the presidential term. As I have suggested recently in Enlace , we need to consider establishing regional AATSP conferences, each one meeting perhaps every two or three years and staggered with regard to the others. We need to provide similar opportunities focused on Spanish and Portuguese. Many of our members who cannot regularly attend our national meetings would find regional ones accessible to them.

    Again following the lead of other organizations, I would like to see us establish a grants committee to seek and then allocate funds to teachers of Spanish and Portuguese in our state chapters. Further, I recommend we establish more awards for our members, named after some of our illustrious predecessors. We need to focus more effectively on recognition of outstanding accomplishments by our colleagues.

    I also hope we will move toward greater attendance at our annual conferences through the selection of varied and frequent overseas sites. Finally, I want to recommend we establish an additional annual meeting for the Executive Council. At present, too much business is conducted in too little time, and the influence and contributions of the council are thus sometimes unacceptably diminished. My focus this evening has been rather speculative -on a possible rediscovery that is yet to come. I cannot conclude, however, without reference to past accomplishments and future promise. Without meaning to neglect any of the fine colleagues whose work makes our association possible, I must note that Jim Chatham is soon to finish his nine-year tenure as executive director.

    His successor, Lynn Sandstedt, brings a wealth of talent and experience to the position. Further, our major voice, Hispania , is to lose the good offices of Ted Sackett, its editor for many fine years of growth and refinement. In his place we are fortunate to have the services of a wonderfully accomplished scholar and editor, Estelle Irizarry. I know that you will all join me in thanking Jim and Ted for the many years of splendid service and in welcoming Lynn and Estelle to their new positions.

    It has been the greatest pleasure and honor to serve as your president. From my first foreign language conference as a new, year-old Ohio high-school teacher until tonight, the company of warm-hearted and skilled professionals such as you has given me confidence and helped to keep me going. I thank you for that, and I wish you all the very best in the years to come. Translators and Their Image. Translators have existed probably since the beginning of human speech. But let us go back only to recorded times, to Greece and Rome where the business of translating and interpreting was handled by slaves.

    In the Middle Ages monks sat closeted in their cells to translate for the greater glory of God. The vast empires of Spain and later of Britain picked their translators from the people they had subjugated. No wonder that -to this day- the image of a translator is not glamorous. When almost every other workforce has created a firm and protected base from which to operate, skilled translators do not even have a professional status in this country. Government departments rank them among the clerical staff. And yet, this modern world of ours would fall to pieces if it were not for the emending and binding and mediating skills of translators.

    What we buy or want to sell, what we hear on the air or read in the paper, the things we believe in and those we fear, our science and technology -they all come to us extracted from a din of foreign voices by the interpretive skill of experienced translators. This must be changed! Individually and as groups we must find the will to change it and direct our strategy and our resources toward this end. We need representatives who highlight our professional importance in the new global economy we hear so much about.

    Yes, those elected ATA policy makers and all ATA chapters -ours above all, young, strong, and sempervivens - should make this a priority commitment. The Process of Translation.

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    Why has the art of translating poetry eclipsed that of prose in the history of translation studies? The answer seems simple: We have commonly believed that the poetry translator must be a poet, and therefore that his technique or philosophy deserves our inquiry, but any somewhat bilingual individual with dictionary in hand can translate a prose text.

    Again, the common belief is that novels are easier to translate than poetry. The traditional virtue of translators, particularly prose translators, has been their invisibility as humble scribes, scribbling transparent texts in the cellar of the castle of Literature. The formal and linguistic complexities of twentieth-century fiction obviously belie these feudal notions. Translations and the practice of translating, says Gideon Toury are observational facts ; the description of these facts is not only essential but prior to any possible theory.

    Self-referential inquisitions by prose translators should provide useful models for translation studies as well as models of self-questioning for all interpreters. Umberto Eco speaks of telling the process of writing as an activity apart from the writing itself:. Poe said that the effect of the work is one thing and the knowledge of the process is another Sometimes the most illuminating pages on the artistic process have been written by minor artists, who achieved modest effects but knew how to ponder their own processes. With this excusatio propter infirmitatem in mind, I would like to explain briefly what motivated me to write a book about translation.

    The project began as a collection of the various notes, articles, and essays I had written from to What struck me almost immediately about these early translation experiences was how much richer the process was than the final product. As I worked with him, and later with Manuel Puig, I observed that the dilemma of one word versus another was not a problem unique to translation.

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    The original writer constantly chooses words and phrases, compelled by intuitions and reasons that often have more to do with language than with his own intentions; as the composer Maurice Ravel once responded to a eulogizing critic, creativity is not a matter of inspiration but of choices, of decision-making. The original is one of many possible versions. Since their letters reveal tantalizing views of the relationship between original and translation -both as product and process- I have translated excerpts that will serve as primary material in my presentations of translation strategies.

    Other reasons for writing such a study took shape as I made the transition from free-lance translator to university professor. The translation of poetry, both classical and modern, and of classical drama, have been marginal scholarly concerns, but does contemporary fiction merit the same respect? So far only James Joyce, the genius of modernism: Finnegans Wake , paradigm of the modern, provides in fiction what Pound forged in poetry, a theoretical though controversial place for translation as interpretation and creation.

    But what can we learn from the translation of contemporary fiction-most of it not yet canonized-and particularly of works from marginal countries such as Cuba and Argentina? Is such writing worthy of translation, and do the problems involved in translating it deserve out attention? I attempted here to address and to redress those questions. But these readers also need to understand how Latin American writing is transmitted to them, and how differences and similarities between cultures and language affect what is finally transmitted.

    Knowing the other and how we receive or hear the other is a fundamental step toward knowing ourselves. Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum. Our foreign language requirements rest on the premise that as students acquire foreign language competence they also acquire a broad awareness of foreign cultures and a deeper understanding of language as a human phenomenon.

    Yet, because of the typical discontinuity between language programs and the rest of the curriculum, students often tend to view the foreign language requirement as just one more obstacle they must surmount on the path to graduation. The study of languages is seen solely as the acquisition of language skills divorced from any meaningful connection to the study of other disciplines, such as history, philosophy, political science, sociology, and art history. Students generally remain unaware of how the knowledge of a second language can enhance understanding of subject matter in practically all fields of study.

    Furthermore, if language study is divorced from the heart of the undergraduate enterprise, language use is even more isolated. On many campuses, foreign language is studied and used only in the foreign language building or at special foreign language department events. Students have little or no opportunity to observe faculty in the humanities, the sciences, and the fine arts using a language other than English to communicate with colleagues for purposes of research or casual exchange.

    By the same token, due to narrowly drawn divisional and departmental lines, these same students are prevented by the curriculum itself as well as by major and other requirements from bringing together their language study and their study of other disciplines. The St. Olaf projects have three objectives. The first is to identify a core group of faculty across the curriculum who have advanced foreign language proficiency and who are willing to incorporate foreign language texts into their courses.

    The second objective is to create appropriate foreign language materials for use in a group of specially adapted courses. The participating faculty members have all had significant international experience. Language faculty have demonstrated their commitment to language teaching and have been involved in teaching and doing research about the culture and history of their areas; non-foreign language discipline specialists have studied and conducted research in their language s of competence and have interest and expertise in cross-cultural analysis and inter-disciplinary work.

    Critical to the success of our projects is the involvement and support of non-foreign language faculty, for it is obvious that student attitudes and behavior will not change unless faculty members demonstrate their commitment to changing the status quo. In a curriculum context, this means faculty working to overcome the perceived low status of second language study and the typical absence of connection between disciplinary study and second language study.

    Also, students need to see non-foreign language faculty in their major departments as positive role models with respect to second language proficiency and use. Thus a major thrust of both projects is faculty development, for which grant funds provide released time, overload stipends, and summer salaries for course preparation and improvement of second language skills. Student language competencies also are enhanced as students read, analyze, interpret, and discuss foreign language materials pertinent to a particular discipline.

    Students who have limited their language study to the requirement are encouraged to continue further by the opportunity to apply their foreign language proficiency to the subjects of interest to them, albeit subjects rarely included within the curriculum of most foreign language department. In terms of the faculty as a whole, the AFLC program has generated more discussion about foreign language competence and use than has occurred on the campus for many years. The fact that many faculty -and not simply language faculty- are talking about languages and the degree to which they are currently used on campus by both faculty and students is a positive development.

    In the fall of , over a dozen non-foreign language faculty were enrolled in language courses, with the intent of using their language in a variety of contexts including, in some cases the AFLC program. These developments constitute progress toward one of the major goals of the applied foreign language projects, namely, extending foreign language study and use across the campus. As for student response, the goal of averaging seven to ten students per AFLC course has been met.

    All indications are that this enrollment pattern will continue. For example, nineteen students are enrolled for a three-course interdisciplinary immersion seminar offered in the fall of under the auspices of the FIPSE grant. Student evaluations confirm student recognition of the value of the program.

    They particularly appreciated the opportunity to discuss ideas and issues of substance made possible by the weekly AFLC discussion session. This opportunity enabled a number of students to contribute in a substantial way to full-class discussions involving both AFLC students and students enrolled in the English-language track. AFLC students were able to contribute insights they might not have had in the absence of the weekly foreign language discussion sessions. We envision a future in which the academic use of languages is seen as an integral part of the undergraduate curriculum of most colleges and universities -and we and others are beginning to make that vision a reality.

    Olaf College Foreign Languages Annals Graduate international students who are proficient in languages known by undergraduates and who possess appropriate disciplinary background enlist as FRSs for LxC-targeted undergraduate courses. In return for payment from the LxC program, and under the supervision of LxC program staff, LRSs prepare class assignments utilizing accessible non-English materials Newspaper items, magazine features, journal articles, book chapters, etc.

    As requested by course faculty, LRSs perform a variety of additional tasks. They also assist in implementing assignments by assuming such roles as discussion leader, tutor, or grader. This as the medium of communication, depending on the abilities of the LxC-participating students. Or it means meeting one-on-one with LxC participants to help them understand the assigned material, or readings and commenting on drafts of written assignments based on that material. Finally, some LRSs speak to the class as a whole about topic-specific non-English linguistic patterns and non-American cultural contexts.

    Students in LxC-supported courses choose to perform LRS-devised assignments instead of assignments using English materials on the basis of their interest and their performance on a simple self-graded reading comprehension test in the foreign language. Faculty normalize the workload of LxC-participating students in various ways, including have one LxC assignment substitute for two non-LxC assignments or making them significantly shorter.

    Info: P. Box , Binghamton, New York Festival Internacional de Houston.

    Eventos UNIFEOB

    Oberhelman Honored Again. The designation, established in to recognize scholarly achievements and outstanding service to Texas Tech, is the highest honor granted to faculty members at the university. Wilson Receives Award. Donna M. Wilson also has been recipient of several teaching awards. As a member of local, regional and national foreign language professional organizations, Wilson actively contributes to her profession through publishing and conducts workshops. The award alternates each year between an undergraduate and a graduate student; for , the first year of operation, the award will be given to a graduate student.

    Only a member of SCOLAS, who is also a faculty member of an accredited regional college or university, may nominate a student. The deadline for receiving applications is Feb. Info: Bertie Acker, Briardale Ct. Letras de oro. Letras de Oro is a nationwide competition for excellence in writing in Spanish in the United States. Annual prizes are awarded in the categories -novel, short story, essay, poetry and theatre. Leading Spanish and Latin American authors have been present for the award ceremony and to lecture on their own works.

    Bases :. Anuncio de premios: Los premios se otorgan durante una ceremonia que tiene lugar en el mes de marzo de The Modern Language Association now offers seven book prizes:. Definition: For an outstanding literary or linguistic study, a critical edition of an important work, or a critical biography. Studies dealing with literary theory, media, cultural history, and interdisciplinary topics are eligible; books that are primarily translations are not.