Thank you, Jorge, for this sane logical response! It sums up what I have read, thought, and felt about the subject quite perfectly, but it expressed so much more coherently than I could have ever tried to! That is insane and how radically far nutz the ideological movement has pressed. This Health Education Framework, which is reviewed in hearings and edited by the Instructional Quality Commission IQC , serves as a guideline for implementing the content standards adopted by the SBE for health education curriculum. PJI testified at prior IQC meetings in Sacramento in the past several months and works to block controversial content from being pushed on children in the public school system.
These are just a few of the many concerning, ideologically-driven aspects of the proposed Framework:. My Princess Boy Chapter 3, pp. Planned Parenthood Chapter 5, p. Spiritual Abuse Chapter 5, p. Also your statement about there being two genders but people could feel like the other or neither is a simple contradiction. Likewise while a mind may experience a large number of things. A delusional man may think he hears a phone ringing. The phone does not exist except in his mind. Him hearing it does not make it real.
Likewise thinking oneself is another gender or not a gender does not make it so. Biologically and neurologically there are more then two genders that what these studies st Harvard and other universities show.
Sex Differences: Summarizing More than a Century of Scientific Research
Its true I believe your comment because is based on unification lines of original human beings. I think you hit the nail on the head. I am a cisgender female but have Trans friends. People who know nothing will argue with you because they feel threatened. They have to deny it out of fear that someone will think they are Trans or Gay. It drives me nuts.
Trans people who come out are some of the most courageous people I know. I am sorry where do feelings or damage come into the scientific method?
While it may or may not be black and white science is Boolean. It is either true or untrue. Regardless of who is harmed in the process. Actually science is not Boolean…. A means to understand how things work basically. Emotions over logic with this crowd, as usual. The rejection, harassment, and shame imposed on them by an unaccepting society does cause significant mental damage to them, to the point where they are more likely to commit suicide.
I think you may be confusing sex with gender, Justin. The fact that we are a sexually dimorphic species means there are two sexes. Gender expectations vary between cultures and can change over time. In other words, abolish the idea of gender altogether. I agree sort of but according to some biological studies certain intersex is a third sex.
Sex isnt as simple or only XY and XX. Gender is a real thing as well. The is psychological evidence of it. Its as real and important to a person as money which has importance due to society. We cannot abolish gender when we naturally have gender identities or not. It seems to make much more sense to just have male, female, and intersex, and then realize that genitals do not necessarily make a person a certain way. Use neutral pronouns for everyone. You are who you are and if you want to reproduce, then you can find someone else who would be compatible for that. The Who the hell are you to come along as the mere 0.
Ever hear of a democracy and the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few. No gender standard will be accepted by all so I say sorry trans but you must adapt to us… the Sam P. As a quick point, the number of cultures that have a 3rd gender would make your statement a lie. It seems to only be nations ruled by the religions of the book that have failed to recognise the binary.
So please, take your assumptions elsewhere. There are 2 genders. That is that. Where have I seen that kind of comment before? I believe you need to stop confusing transvestism aka transgender with transsexualism. Within the theory of transsexualism sex and gender mean the exact same thing. Gender is just polite way to say sex without implying the reproductive parts of it. I believe I believe you also stated people should stop using the word transsexual.
Instead I going you stop misusing it and stop telling people not to use the word. From your comments I have seen enough to call bs on you. You cannot be a trans woman without also linking being a male to it aka she-male. I just see you as another autogynephillic terf lover helping them trash the word transsexual and the science. Actually, no. Gender and gender expression are not the same thing. Not major structures, not all consistent, but a few of these features are consistent. An answer to why we want to transition?
This is something I posted on a comment in response to a question on a philosophy forum. They seemed to find it helpful, hopefully others will too. Their question, what is gender, and why are people transgender? In society there are 2 major social groups that people belong to, Male and Female, and people that are Transgender were assigned to the wrong group at birth, so they may belong to the other group, neither group, flit between the groups, or be somewhere in the middle.
This was a follow up question asking for more information as to why people want to transition. Because we identify as the other gender, we look around at the media, advertising, porn, people, etc. So for some people that are only slightly affected, being able to dress and identify with that social group may be enough. Hi honey. I completely understand what is your point but there is a conflict in your writings. I am a trans-feminine girl. That would create a confusion. A trans-feminine one and I am proud of that and I will die as a Transgender Girl.
I will never be a Girl and actually never want to. Cause I am trans and I love it. No, it is not a fact that gender is different from sex. There is no definitive study or science that proves that. There is no science that can definitely prove that this is not a mental illness either. The attached study by no means is definitive and it is riddled with pro-trans bias.
You can post links, just keep the number at around 3 or less to stop the automatic spam filter caught by that one myself. You have actually read the original article, where it lays out the scientific underpinnings of gender in the brain, and how it differs from sex? As this comment is especially ignorant on this particular article.
The book that fights sexism with science | Science | The Guardian
That is not even close to what biology is. A big issue here is the same can be said about Gender Dysphoria, and Transgender disorder. The definition changed. This is considered a psychological ailment, and it ought to be. They feel something similar to trans folk. The suicide rate for people with this disorder is just a little larger than trans folk. Point being I truly believe we should treat people how they want, within reason of course.
I mean have manors is all. There are certainly scientists that disagree on the merits and meanings behind certain data, but as a whole science has nothing to do with there being more than 2 sexes, or genders for that matter. And if the argument is that gender is a social construct, then the meaning behind the different genders people claim to have has even less merit. Even the most introspective and self-aware of us will usually have an initial reaction to become defensive. I mean sorry to come off rudely, but that is not what biology is.
Biology can have a huge, or not so huge effect on people. In fact, in most cases it does. Again, you do you. Every one of us.
The word gender has changed its definition. But I would put fourth that if it has no link to sex, then what is it? Is it truly just a social construct like so many have claimed? And if so, then what significance does it have? I was raised by a single mother along with my sister. Where did I learn them? My idols were all artists, though I did live sports and trained my ass off, I seldom actually watched them.
You could say it was my friends who instilled these things in me, but most of them were girls growing up. Nor do I think it needs to be. Gender is different things to different people. It holds different weight. People who admit a lack in evidence, but also give me true insight into what gender identity means to them. If you know who you are, great. And whether you believe me or not I really want to help where I can.
Biology has nothing to do with your gender. Does this matter? Do any of these labels matter? That seems to be up to the individual. Personally I find them pedantic and limiting. Why put yourself in a box, or multiple boxes in this case. And since it has such a loose definition, am I gender fluid because I do stereotypical female things? Do I always have to be eating a steak and punching someone in the face? All of these identity crisis pose a similar issue. I bet there are better things about you than your gender.
Maybe not. Government and Church have systematically erased them for centuries. As far as the transgendered issue, I believe that this is a mental illness. You can turn a hotdog into a taco, but you will never actually be a woman.
Biologically you are and always will be a man. You gender is purely a social construct, much like being goth or a jock or whatever. You desire to be recognized as a girl is purely social and psychological. You desire for others to recognize you as YOU want them to; not how society tells them they must.
But once you step into the locker room or shower with my little girl or wife, we are going to have problems. Like others have said here, gender is different from sex. They are separated by your sex. Once your clothes are off, there is no difference between you and any other man. Oppression and depression are not synonymous.
Black females being one of the most oppressed groups have low depression and virtually non existent suicide rates. So how can society be to blame for it? The very definition of self esteem is that it is self administered. If you require others acceptance that by definition does nothing for your self esteem. Suicide rates among trans-genders is just a shade under schizophrenics. While gays do not have even close to the same suicide rates despite oppression. And both have the same complaint of not feeling comfortable in their own bodies.
We treat body dysmophia by pushing Therapy and acceptance of their bodies and we treat transgender by carving them up like a turkey. Neither disorders suicide rate drops even post op. So why are we not teaching transgenders to accept their body as made by nature? As transgender people take hormones they take on the physical traits of the gender they are taking the hormones for.
Given that this means that M2F people will look more feminine including developing breasts and the muscle and fat distribution of a woman , and F2M people will look more masculine including developing a beard, deep voice, and muscle and fat distribution of a man. Are you honestly saying that you would prefer someone that looks like a lumberjack, with a beard and a deep voice shares a changing room with your wife and children just because they were born a female? As your argument cuts both ways.
The same is true for F2M people, they have more muscle, hair, beard, lower voice, etc. This is before we start getting into any surgery concerns. So do you want to actually think about your argument and give it another go? Focus on the mental illnesses developed from experiencing transphobia before you start saying we are all mentally ill. Take with it what you may. Sweety as long as something is not harmful and destructive It is not an illness specially a mental one.
You need to know that trans gender people are another creation just like many creations of our world. You can not deny it cause it exists and it is proven. Actually if you get to know us we are good people and love to love and be loved. If you have further question do not hesitate to ask. The root cause is mental illness… hormone therapy and transition surgery will only address the symptoms and not address the real problem. This is why suicide rates are nearly as high after surgery as before surgery. Your last statement is patently false; the suicide rate after surgery is but a fraction of what it is before surgery.
This has been documented. Why not turn your anger toward something to be angry about, like white supremacists and neo-Nazis? So , if you feel like a man and you have female body , my question is how do you know the difference in a male mind and a female mind to be so certain? Hence the mental perception will still exist. Another amazing observation I have seen in the sudden burst of gender issues is the support groups on tumbler for teens. Teens are asking an anonymous person who they are and what they need to call themselves?! What is wrong in this picture?
Sounds like an acceptance issue. Next the kid tests the waters by talking about a friend and educating the parent Screaming and yelling at home, depression ,anxiety , low self esteem sets in. Next plan talk about suicide and get admitted to a hospital to get the parents to agree for a name change Ask for a therapy dog Ask for surgeries, binders etc Are these the future of a society? Who is coming up with these names and helping them label themselves?
Almost feels like it is all planned to the T ps I do know and understand the exceptions and I am not referring to them but to the outburst that is happening in schools and colleges I hope the psychiatric association looks into the influence of social media in this strange behavior and include dysphoria as something that needs to be treated before major surgeries are performed and leave the future youth more handicapped to face life for what is worth.
How long will you just treat the anxiety and depression? Time to address the issue and question some obvious scenarios! One can enjoy life without a gender issue! Happiness has no gender!
Between the (Gender) Lines: the Science of Transgender Identity
You obviously have no clue as to what being transgender really is. Being transgender is not a mental illness; the depression, paranoia, and other things that could lead to someone taking their own life come from the scorn, ridicule, and rejection that trans people face because they are transgender.
Being disowned by your parents, rejected by friends and family, fired from your job, evicted from your place of dwelling, or being denied health care simply because you are transgender is enough to send anybody over the edge. Now, you go right ahead and keep preaching about the changing times. Meanwhile, the rest of the world will be busy living our lives, trying to stay clear of people like you. Good luck with that. I am transpecied. Ever since I was seven years old I knew that I am a panther stuck in a human body. How awful it has been to live as a human when all I can think of is joining my pack of panthers in the mountains.
What he is referring to is biological sex. The last years has not changed that fact. All of the things that define biological sex are still exactly the same today as they were years ago. We get it. The trans community wants change. You all want it yesterday but the change that you really want is nowhere near in sight. Exploring the human mind, talking about trans issues, are things that are never going to change the above. What will change is that more of society will begin to accept trans people in every way possible excluding sexual relationships.
That is not how reality works and that is not how mother nature works. I realize this was posted a while ago, still I need to respond. If you feel that there are only two genders, why are you seeking these kinds of articles out? Clearly you have questions, as do I. While I cannot begin to imagine the things that those who do not identify as their assigned gender go through, I understand looking in the mirror and not liking what I see. That is difficult, I can change many of the things I do not like, and it would be uncontroversial.
I would probably even get more compliments. I know that I would feel better if those around me saw the me that I feel like I am. Being a cisegender women is hard enough, the pressure is crazy at best. Being a person that is perceived as one gender but feeling like the opposite, or both, or none would be devastating. Every living being deserves respect and equality, that is simple. Okay, a male who has gone through transition surgery is no longer a male, but a female. Your attempting to have a valid opinion simply by suggesting your belief? Do you have proof?
Have you studied gender and all its variables? What is your level of education or even experience with anyone who is transgender? Yeah thought so! So how do you explain folks who were assigned male at birth, yet turned out to have ovaries? How do you explain those assigned female at birth, who suddenly start growing a penis in puberty instead of breasts? Are you unfamiliar with academic citation? Review the listed citation. If you are unsure where they are located, review the format of an APA format.
Some of the research does indicate that for some people there may be a biological basis for feeling more akin to the opposite sex due to atypical hormone exposure in utero. However the issue is there is no way to test for this in living people — the bstc size can only be observed post mortem. What this means is that many people who identify as trans may not have any biological condition at all. For many it may be psychological or caused by social contagion.
The huge rise of young people suddenly developing a trans identity after a stint on the internet or lots of their friends coming out as non binary indicates this may well be an aetiology. This then leaves the problem of young people being unecessary medicated. For example multiple personality disorder and repressed memory syndrome, both of which were subsequently shown to be incredibly rare. Re the article I picked out one reference which was inaccurately discribing.
It is quoted that 1. This is completely untrue. The figure is more like 0. The 1. These are women who in middle age develop an adrenal condition where they produce too much testosterone and start to grow a beard. Thus they were NOT born with ambiguous gentialia. They were born with entirely typical female genitalia. The internet and social media have merely provided a means of more broadly disseminating information, and thus those with gender dysphoria are able to find a name for their issue, talk to others with it, and find ways to treat it usually hormone replacement therapy, sometimes surgery.
Is this your real reasoning for your request or is it simply to drive home your political beliefs so that way you can belittle those with opposing views? Then that makes it bias nitpicking and not true research. The article is written under the umbrella of Harvard University and yet I see no in-text citations!
She then uses empty facts and flawed logic couched in scientific terms to full the reader into overlooking the obvious problems. Instead of classifying brains as male or female, why not embrace the diversity of brains in a particular sex and accept that whatever brain that inhabits a body, be it a male or female body, is the brain of that corresponding sex. It would also be interesting to see a study of the brains of ultra-femme men and butch women to see if they are similar to the majority of brains of the opposite sex.
In addition to that, compare them to the brains of transgender individuals of their corresponding biological sex. Cheryl Li, I like your ideas about the comparative studies. Links and Article Heads would be great. At best there is greater diversity in male brains and female brains than previously supposed and gender roles are too rigid. Yes and no. Both could be true. Brain studies show that whilst overall in populations there are some differences in male and female brains across the population, most people are in the middle.
Think of height — men are overall taller than women but there are many taller women and shorter men. Even if there is a biological spectrum of masculine and feminine it is certain that gender roles are very much socialised as well. The idea that we are a blank slate and socialisation is everything is I think untrue. However socialisation can also play a large role as does culture in general. Alas, it does not work that way. Transsexual suffer from dysphoria which can be compared to having a throbbing psychic toothache, or if you have the good fortune of never having had a toothache, then maybe a persistent itch you cannot scratch.
There is psychological damage that transsexuals go through. We have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group and suffer a high rate of homicide. This stems from societal rejection sometimes from nuclear families and from the persistent feeling that our bodies and social roles are plain wrong. However, with treatment, we can get relief. My sincere hope is that another generation does not have to go through an irreversible and disfiguring puberty before getting medical help.
Norman Spack, MD, now in retirement it seems, over at Boston Child Hospital and affiliated with Harvard Medical School has been instrumental in bringing what is often called the Dutch Protocol to help trans youth. In short, we do not need to study these children and leave them in bodies they loath. We need to help them. Children are unreliable, and the younger they are the more unreliable they are.
I was assigned boy at birth. I did not grow out of it. I was deeply harmed by having to go through an irreversible and disfiguring male puberty. I was reliable in my assertions. I insisted I was a girl for 20 years and your 30 days playing with an easy bake oven testimony a hollow testimony to the real pain than real transsexuals dealt with for decades.
Stop forcing your false narratives down the throats of real transsexuals. Can you explain why you did and what it felt like? You have to be kidding me… Deeply harmed… disfiguring male puberty…. You act as if your parents could have stopped that. Lucky for you there is in-depth science now and you can live as you please. Shame on you for hating your parents for doing what they thought to be right. The fact is that some kids who experience symptoms of dysphoria when they are young will grow out of it, while others will develop into full-blown dysphoria.
The solution this study proposes is to administer hormone therapy at age 14, but not everyone is mature enough to make such a huge decision at that age. Life altering decisions are made. Putting a child through a puberty of a sex they do not affirm creates problems for the person for the rest of their life. You are right that many patients will decide not to transition, but that shows up at puberty. The kid will decide to go with the assigned birth. The bone density issue is speculative and seems not to be a factor.
The alternative is to start cross sex hormones in middle school and some places are doing that where insurance is not covering blockers. I totally disagree. I thought I was a girl for 20 years starting at age 6. However this was not widely available a the time. I cried when I started puberty and felt misgendered when straight women were attracted to me because I saw myself as a woman and presented very femme. I was an effeminate bisexual man not a woman. But in childhood I had absorbed the idea I could not be a boy and have the interests and proclivities I had.
Thank goodness I was not brought up now. I understand for you it may have been an underlying and permanent confidition but the problem is children are easily influenced and do not know their own minds- or at least can not be sure until they are grown up. For every child saved from natural puberty we risk putting children through unecessary treatment. Here lies the issue. The idea of sterilising children on the basis of an untestable self diagnosis strikes me as incredibly dubious. Many children who would grow up to be gay may misdiag nose themselves as trans before they realise their sexuality.
I like your thinking. I have an opinion, I have no evidence, but simply an intuition, that gender as an expression is commonly different in every individual. Long story short, I claimed that men and women are actually just large social group in society that almost everyone belongs to.
At the same time as society is forcing us to conform to this other social group. What does that even mean? Who assigns? Are you postulating a higher being God maybe? The doctor that does our paper work. For intersex people this may also include surgery to make the external genitals conform to societal norms. Which is why you can get XY women, and XX men. If you were at risk for biological disorders that impacted your health opposed to tour esteem, these standards might be relevant.
We need objective standards of measurement, not subjective fluff. There is a huge difference between a Study of Genes and an Observational Study.
The first one is objective knowledge, the second it is just a subjective interpretation that tends to be biased, or in the best scenario, not conclusive. Observational studies are typically compared with randomized controlled experiments. In fact, most of the studies of human behavior, nutrition, and longevity among many other fields are observational studies. ANY kind of study can be flawed, but we take care to only cite articles that have been peer-reviewed and use appropriate statistical tests and methods.
Also, importantly, many studies of human genes rely on observational studies. Many of the aforementioned traits or aspects of identity may have roots in certain genes that affect many parts of a person, and environment can certainly interact with genes. Thanks for your response. However in rare cases mutations and abnormalities may alter the number of sex chromosomes, or cause the opposite genitalia to develop in xx or xy humans.
Is this correct? If so, it would appear that biological sex is binary, regardless of the genetic code behind the outcome. Or are you stating that these chromosomal abnormalities represent different sexes? That is incorrect. Biological sex in mammals is very binary. The only two gamete options are ova or spermatozoa. Sexual development may be a sloppy er process but there is no inbetween gamete that is produced. I am not talking about out of the ordinary examples of this condition or that condition possibly having effects on how those genes develop in a minute number of people.
I mean on a regular without mitigating factors basis. Because if there is, then your argument of there being no genes for logic, republicans, and so forth is just a way to insult the intelligence of others while in some half ass way trying to avoid answering the question properly because the answer to that question does not suit your personal beliefs. And that is what you are doing with such an answer — mocking others to coverup your desire to not have an honest discussion on this topic where you properly answer questions even if their answers do not suit your purposes.
You know the correct answer to that question. There are some hypothesis on it, but nothing that can be proven at this time. And as your own answer say, such a gene is likely to never be found. With that we can finally break through to the reality of the situation. There is no gene for transgender. There are things that can happen that play a role in gender identity. BUT those things are more rare exceptions than anything else.
The reality of it all is that we are born with genetic make ups that can be tested and verified as either male or female. This is scientific fact. Any other identity or other such goobedlygook is something completely different. There is nothing to debate there. Transgenderism has been shown to have genetic influence as described in the article. But if you asked a farmer centuries ago about inheritance, they would be able to tell you that certain traits are inherited generation to generation.
I agree the genes have not been found but when they are that would make transgender treatable inutero making it possibly non existent. Lack of existence makes fighting for permanent rights kinda moot point. It would be like putting the dodo on the endangered species list.
Same for a gay gene or series of genes. Australians did a study that found issues with the SRY gene in male to female transsexuals. Sadly large amounts of the brain and genetic research into the causes of transsexualism have been conducted outside the U. S because of prejudice both inside and outside the academic world. I believe the use of the word transgender relates to that prejudice.
I know of no brain or chromosome research that has been conducted on those who identify as other than male or female. Here is a Popular Science article about the sry gene link to transsexualism. Add to that objections by the transgender leadership about studying transsexuals by sexual orientation. Those who know the research well know transvestites as well as other forms of pseudo at ran asexual a have been allowed to transition. The word transgender comes from that and a hatred towards transsexuals by lesbian feminist. Other than humans, has it been observed in nature? If so, perhaps genes can be identified by comparing genomes?
I hope some people are still on this old article. I am a cis man. I have B. E in bioengineering and Ph. And that this is a serious question. If I understand correctly, this is separate from what sex and by sex I understand that means outward biology they are attracted to sexually. So my sincere question, because I want to understand but I do not currently, is how anyone can identify with a particular gender apart from with sex they are attracted to sexually.
I saw the whole social club argument, but I am not sure I am buying it. I have both male and female friends, but I have more women friends and in this comparison I am not including past or present lovers. Again please emphasize I am interested in logical and factual discussion. I am not attacking anyone, and I will not respond to any personal attacks. Without referring to your primary or secondary sexual characteristics how do you know that you are a boy? The answer to that question is the same answer that those of us that are transgender have. In much the same way that some people are left-handed.
It had been said that being transgender is like trying to run Mac software on a PC, or trying to run a PC with a pre-Intel Mac processor. Genes — there are XX and XY. These genes set up the potential in the womb for natal development e. The genes determine sex, but the environment in the womb nurture results in the expression of trans-gender. XX and XY are not genes, they are pairs of chromosomes. Multiple genes are found on each of the chromosomes. While there may be certain genes that determine a single trait, often there are traits that are determined by multiple genes.
As this article asserts, it may be a combination of genes on these x and y chromosomes that determine gender. Funny how all of his sources were debunked years ago. Johns Hopkins has in fact resumed performing transgender surgery as of this year. Paul McHugh also tried to convince the world that the pedophelia in the Catholic priesthood was actually gay sex with remorse. This article is highly subjective and makes false presumptions.
What we do know is that biological gender is indeed binary as the article correctly states , and as far as we know, biology describes the totality of our gender experience. The rest is entirely speculation, most of it politicized, based on scant, often dated or discredited studies with hypothetical conclusions that establish nothing close to a consensus. This article is written based on scientific studies. We seek to always represent the science fairly. As the author, it is YOUR responsibility to provide cites and resources to justify the position that you hold or the findings your deduce from the research.
You provide none. You have that backwards. In the article it pointed out that other scientific studies were debunked and discredited, but why? You cannot prove your point without backing it up with a source, that source being one you used to disprove and prove your point. We agree that sources are important! While gender dysphoria used to be classified as a mental illness, it is now widely accepted that this is not the case. It is also widely accepted among both doctors and scientists that neither biological sex i. I have to agree with Marshall.
The Scientific Method is the process of eliminating possibilities through experiments, not designing experiments to support their hypothesis. This article has not considered many other hypothesis but cherry picked evidence to support the desired conclusion. In Neurobiology you can take any group of individuals and discover similarities in their brain composition. While the science may be sound in this article the conclusions can be misleading. There are some studies almost all human studies for which it is not possible to design the types of empirical experiments one can do with animals.
The studies presented in this article are very standard scientific studies, designed using the scientific method within ethical confines. Twin studies are the gold standard in determining genetic contribution in human studies. If more identical twins who have identical genomes than fraternal twins have something in common, then it is very likely that there is a genetic contribution. This is because it is unlikely that two identical twins are raised in more similar environments than fraternal twins. And this is exactly what was seen with the trait of being transgender!
And science is definitively about consensus! With the genetic and brain structure evidence we have now and is explained in this article , there is scientific consensus that gender identity has biological underpinnings. Where is that? However even with consensus, evidence behind that consensus still is the strength behind the scientific claim. On the note of my own personal evidence, I am not the one making a scientific claim. This paper is the one that makes a scientific claim and attempting to use evidence to support the claim.
Incomplete evidence provides incomplete conclusions. If all of those experiments fail to disprove the hypothesis, then logically it can be concluded that the hypothesis is correct. All that this article does is show ONE experiment that supports the hypothesis and then published the conclusions. To try and catch those holes before publishing? Again great, insightful article but it is incomplete and does not answer all questions related to transgenderism. In fact it raises more questions than it answers and that in it of itself tells me it is an incomplete study with an incomplete conclusion.
This article is not a study. It is a summary of peer-reviewed, scientific-method-using literature on this topic. The author is not trying to make or test a hypothesis. She is just summarizing available studies. When I asked you for evidence, I was responding to the part of your comment that said you agreed with Marshall. Marshall said claimed that there was evidence that explained transgenderism as a mental illness. This article talks about multiple experiments she cites at least 8 studies , btw. The point of peer review is to catch holes in a single study, not holes in an entire field of research.
Gender is much too complicated to be understood in a single study. The studies here asked and answered specific questions e. And these studies, according to their peer-reviewers, were able to reliably answer these questions. No one is trying to explain all of the reasons contributing to gender identity in a single study.
Every field has more work to do to understand ourselves and our world more completely. As scientists, we are glad that there are always more questions to answer, for this is what keeps us employed! I understand. I believe the claim he was making referred to the high suicide rates that are comparable to those with Gender-dysphoria. Studies have even determined that gender re-assignment surgery does not help with the suicide rates. The easy answer is to explain this away by saying the high suicide rate is due to high exposure to bullying.
Yet even among other groups that experience intense bullying still come no where close to the same amount of suicide rates. I myself have spent two years in a situation where I was constantly rejected, spit on, robbed and even threatened at gun point. I believe that is what Marshall is referring to in the above comment and is a major flaw in the above article. Also it would be important to take into account individuals who have gone through what some would call a transgender lifestyle and lived to regret it.
Understanding what helped them to not commit suicide and to come at peace with themselves. Many children who believe they are a different sex tend to grow out of it as their brain and body develops. So why should we encourage a behavior that is potentially self destructive? You would encourage a bulimic individual to continue throwing up would you?
I would hope you would try and get them the best help possible. In fact similar neuroscience studies have found brain developmental causes for depression. Does that mean we encourage individuals with depression because it is natural? No we help them cope with it in spite of how their body naturally developed. I see no difference in with transgenderism especially because there is no indication in studies that transgender individuals would stop killing themselves if the world just stopped bullying them. White men, as a group, also have higher suicide rates than the general population.
Does that mean that identifying as a white man is a sign of mental illness? Third, can you cite the studies that show transgender people have higher suicide rates that is not due to bullying? Figures lie and liars figure. Hiding behind the studies you choose to cherry pick while ignoring many others that YOU KNOW exist and that say something completely different with real consensus than your make believe consensus presented in this hack job article is no better than propaganda.
There are many elements of truth presented, but when you can not even address a simple question on a transgender gene without mocking people and talking in circles when the answer is nothing but CONSENSUS? Please, save us your self serving condescension. You lose all credibility at that point. If you have studies to disprove this i. We have no intention of cherry-picking. Please let us know what other information you think should be included here so as not to give that impression.
The Guardian article mentions that many therapists interviewed believe that the vast majority of their clients who have undergone sexual reassignment surgery are happy with the change. The consensus from the article from both sides of the argument is actually that more research needs to be done, because so many follow-up studies have sampled the population poorly.
Such a dramatic change inevitably produces psychological trauma. If you have a good health care provider, they will likely offer counseling after a skin transplant following severe burns that might alter your physical appearance for instance. Furthermore, this cohort study was comparing individuals who had undergone sexual reassignment to the general population.
Perhaps a better comparison would be to transgender individuals who had not undergone reassingnment to see if suicide rates had gone down — which would ACTUALLY comment on the effectiveness of sex reassignment. Finally, a much more recent study has actually addressed some of your concerns. It shows that while suicide attempt rates are indeed higher among transgender individuals, these rates drop dramatically if psychological and social factors bullying, marginalization, etc. If the individuals themselves did not have negative views surrounding transgenderism, rates dropped.
This was for attempted suicide not actual. I am generally suspicious of the regret rate as so many are lost to follow up. Having had two friends transition fully and partially and regret it i am aware neither cases were captured as regret. In the full case the mtf continued to live as a woman as having divested herself of her genitalia she thought this the better option along with the ability to use the protected trans characteristic in law to her advantage in applying for jobs and housing etc.
However she was fully aware that the procedure was a mistake and she realised she was a cross dresser who had a mental breakdown and became convinced that she was trans and transition the answer to her problems. The case of my friend who partially transitioned was similar. He came to realise he was a cross dresser whose therapist had persuaded him was a sign he was actually trans gender. He know considers that this was delusional thinking encouraged by a mental health professional when he was suffering depression.
As the other two trans people i know who are happy with their transitional so have serious mental health issues i am inclined to think from this case study of 4 that whilst for some genetics may be at play that there is a large scope for other aetiologies. In fact it seems negligent to ignore this as allowing vulnerable people to modify their bodies so drastically in ways they may later regret even if not officially is unethical. The biological basis this article promotes acts to encourage a lack of gatekeeping for treatment which i see as very important to ensure only those who would really benefit are permitted to be treated.
That said, you really should read up on intersex and how that works — on a genetic level. Gender, on the other hand, is socio-cultural. Bibliographies on both these works are a good resource for bringing yourself up to speed in the gender studies field. Transgender is not viewed as a pathology. Moods do not necessarily correlate to some sort of neuro-pathological state e. Gender presentation by and large is a socio-cultural function. The DSM was changed not by scientific pressure but by political pressure. This is no different than the EPA changing its criteria based on Exxon lobbying. I would dearly love you to cite the evidence that gender dysphoria responds to psychopharmacological treatment or talking therapies as the disorders you mentioned do.
Trans people have a perfectly good idea as to what their bodies look like. There is no fussing over any minor or imagined defect. Treatment i. Just one more bit of data suggesting that gender dysphoria is not in the same realm as BDD and other disorders if they were, it would stand to reason that the same type of treatment would effect similar results.
Transgenderism is not at all like anorexia or other body dysmorphic illnesses because transgender patients were treated in the same exact way medically and psychologically as people with BIID, anorexia, etc and did not respond to the therapies or medication in anyway. However, people with anorexia, BIID, etc did and do respond to those therapies and medications. You should look into the history of how transgender people were treated by the medical community because they treated exactly like people suffering from body dysmorphic illnesses.
However, transgenderism did and does respond very well to the way that it is treated today, which is first to help the person come to terms with their transgender status, and then from there to help the person decide what the next course of action should be from transitioning socially, medically, or do nothing. As for the comorbidity rate much of that is due to the very negative way in which transgender people are treated, and perceived by society.
As the current treatment and standards of care for. This article will not only discuss the topic of gender and sex differences in drug addiction our field of study , it will also discuss similar gender and sex differences in compulsive behaviors, including gambling Potenza et al. We define addiction as the chronic, compulsive use of a substance or engagement in a behavior, regardless of the negative consequences.
This suggests that there are some basic biological differences between females and males that influence how each responds to drugs of abuse and engage in addictive behaviors Becker et al. Gender is defined as a system of social organization with a set of behavioral prescriptions that are believed to follow from biological sex characteristics.
Researchers in the social and natural sciences have demonstrated that addictions and consequences of addictions differ by biological sex and also by gender Becker et al. A thesis of this article is that gender and sex differences in addiction are a complicated interaction between sociocultural factors and neurobiological sex differences.
In addition, the conceptualization of addiction as a brain disease contributes to the belief that some people's brains make it almost inevitable that they will become addicts Meurk et al. When a scientist describes findings of sex differences that result in women becoming addicted more rapidly than men Anglin et al. While it is likely that some individuals are more vulnerable to addiction, as will be discussed below, it is not inevitable that a vulnerable person will necessarily become an addict. Additionally, for many people the label of brain disease strips them of their agency, so they fail to take responsibility for their addiction Wiens and Walker Neuroscientists generally understand that the human brain is not hardwired, but it is rare that the nuances are conveyed to the public by the popular press.
It is important to do so. Scientific findings need to be presented in a way that does not attribute sex differences in addiction entirely to the brain, and this message needs to be conveyed to the media as well. This idea will be revisited at the conclusion of this article. A third goal for this article is to address a conclusion in the paper, The Sexed Brain: Between Science and Ideology , by Catherine Vidal, that on p. These two types of sex differences differ in the extent to which they may be modified by environmental and sociocultural factors, with cognitive sex differences being affected to a greater extent by learning.
First, some evidence for sex differences in addiction in both animals and humans will be briefly reviewed. This has been the topic of a number of detailed reviews recently Becker and Koob, ; Carroll and Lynch, ; Perry et al. The article ends with thoughts about how to discuss results with both scientific and lay audiences in ways that stress the complex interrelationships among biological and environmental factors, and challenge assumptions about biological determinism.
This section provides a brief overview of the state of current knowledge regarding gender and sex differences in addiction. As a result, findings remain incomplete and sometimes contradictory, particularly when the LGBT community is considered Hughes et al. Effects of the environment and positive or negative experience can also affect the brain and influence vulnerability to addiction differently in males and females Bowman et al.
For centuries it has been known that the phenomenon we now call addiction is a progressive condition. The initial stage involves engagement with the drug, or when the person or animal experiences its rewarding aspects after sampling. It is important to note that some individuals never progress past this point, indefinitely using the drug occasionally or even stopping use. Using drugs can be related to social roles; for most of American history, men were much more likely than women to drink alcohol and use illicit drugs recreationally, while women were more likely to be prescribed drugs as medicine McClellan, ; Kandall, ; McClellan, Within the general population, individuals differ in their risk for addiction due to a range of factors, including genetic and personality traits Heinrich et al.
Physicians, psychiatrists and social workers have believed since early in the 20th century that women escalate alcohol use rapidly once they start McClellan ; McClellan ; Kandall Still, we do not know what makes some individuals at greater risk for addiction. For those women and men who are vulnerable to addiction i. In contrast, a recent analysis of data from two U. During attempts to quit drug use abstinence , women exhibit greater unpleasant symptoms than men Hogle and Curtin ; Becker and Koob When trying to quit smoking, women also go through more severe withdrawal symptoms than men Hogle and Curtin Women report greater effects on mood and anxiety as well as a greater stress response compared to men Hogle and Curtin, On the other hand, males exhibit greater withdrawal symptoms when quitting alcohol consumption than females Devaud et al.
Most data suggests that women and men have similar outcomes after treatment for substance use disorders Greenfield et al. What has been reported to differ between women and men are the factors related to relapse, which is reported to be more sporadic occurring without apparent trigger or intent , and related to negative affect, as well as previous physical and sexual abuse among women Greenfield et al. This propensity to relapse, associated with negative affect, could be related to the greater withdrawal responses that women exhibit for some drugs Hudson and Stamp, ; Sinha et al.
All of these factors have been reported to be associated with relapse in studies of men and women who are addicted and trying to quit Becker and Koob, There are also issues related to social support for maintaining abstinence, with men tending to receive more social support at home and on the job, and women tending to be more isolated or not supported by their partners in their decision to be abstinent Gallop et al.
Additionally, women who are addicted experience greater stigma than men do; this, combined with less social support means more isolation and a greater risk for relapse than men Becker et al. Sex and gender differences in addiction and relapse can be seen in humans and in animal models. But these differences are not solely determined by biology, sociocultural influences also differentially affect men and women and how they respond to drugs of abuse. The animal models as well as the clinical research need to take into consideration how contextual and social factors may influence the processes of addiction and relapse differentially in males and females.
For this very brief discussion of the neurobiology of sex differences in addiction we will focus on the nucleus accumbens and the dorsal striatum, but other areas of the brain are also involved in the neurobiology of addiction and the reader is referred to recent reviews for more details Becker and Koob, ; Becker et al. One current model for the development of addiction is that the nucleus accumbens is important for engaging in behaviors that are initially rewarding, while the dorsal striatum is involved in escalated drug taking and compulsive behaviors Clark et al.
In this model of addiction, when dopamine activation of the dorsal striatum becomes greater than the response to the drug in the nucleus accumbens, there is a loss of pleasure associated with drug taking even though drug taking increases DiFeliceantonio and Berridge, ; Castro and Berridge, For some habits such as learning to drive a car with a manual transmission, this is an advantage for being able to shift gears when needed without conscious thought. The pattern of behavior, once learned, can be executed without thinking about it, transferring from one car to another even when the gearshift is in a different position.
This flexible pattern of automatic behavior also characterizes addiction. When intake progresses from being a casual pleasure to avid and compulsive intake, the pattern of activation in the brain has also shifted from dopamine activation in the nucleus accumbens to dopamine activation in dorsolateral striatum Willuhn et al. Among female rats and humans that become compulsive drug takers, there is the tendency to experience the shift in loss of voluntary control of drug intake to compulsive drug intake more rapidly than males Becker et al.
There is a reduction in nucleus accumbens dopamine release that is thought to be what allows the dorsal striatum to assume control of the addict's behavior, thereby transforming the drug taking into a compulsive behavior, or what we consider addiction Perry et al. Initially, Female rats tend to exhibit a smaller response in the nucleus accumbens to drug stimulation compared with males, and have a relatively greater and more rapid initial response in the dorsal striatum to drugs, coupled with a decrease in the accumbens response after cocaine taking is well established Cummings et al.
This brain pattern may underlie the sex difference in escalation of drug taking that leads to addiction. Supporting this notion, women who are smokers exhibit a lower response in the ventral striatum than in the dorsal striatum to nicotine stimulation compared with male smokers Cosgrove et al. Even though all individuals, both human and animal, will exhibit changes in the brain after receiving a drug of abuse Leyton, ; Wegener and Koch, ; Willuhn et al.
This is true for all classes of drugs studied and for both rats and monkeys Carroll et al. Female rats also escalate their drug use more rapidly than males, take more drug when they get to maintenance dose, and females will work harder to get a dose than male rats will Roth and Carroll, ; Westenbroek et al. There are changes in the brain of all individuals who get a drug, but the changes in the brains of individuals who become addicted are different from those who do not. Individual differences in genetics, personality traits, extent of social support, experiences or trauma during development, and whether one is male or female are all thought to contribute to how someone responds to drugs of abuse and whether one develops compulsive behaviors associated with an addiction Cummings et al.
This means that even though individuals can be categorized as male or female, or brought up in an impoverished vs. The laboratory evidence supports the idea that there are biological components to the sex differences. But this does not mean that all women are going to be addicts or that women cannot quit once they have started.
In fact, studies document many barriers for women in traditional treatment programs, and that treatment programs tailored for women tend to be more successful Campbell and Ettore, This is because the ovarian hormones, estradiol and progesterone, have full access to the brain. The hormone condition of a woman needs to be considered when thinking about sex differences in addiction. The human menstrual cycle consists of follicular, periovulatory, and luteal phases. Menstruation occurs at the end of the luteal phase, unless pregnancy occurs.
During menstruation hormone levels are at their lowest point, indicating the beginning of the next follicular phase Becker et al. Rats and mice do not have a spontaneous luteal phase Becker et al. The acute subjective effects of drugs of abuse can vary over the menstrual cycle in humans. For example, in women the subjective effects of cocaine and amphetamines tend to be more intense during the follicular phase when estradiol is elevated, relative to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when both estradiol and progesterone increase Justice and de Wit, ; Justice and De Wit, ; Evans et al.
If an OVX rat is given estradiol, the rat will take more cocaine and work harder to get cocaine, just as an intact rat during estrus will work harder for cocaine Becker and Hu, ; Roberts et al. This sex difference is attributable to sexual differentiation of the brain during early life Perry et al. Most laboratory studies are conducted with rats isolated in the testing chamber for hours. The chamber contains a lever or nose poke hole. The rat may receive an intravenous injection of a drug, such as cocaine, by pressing the lever or poking its nose into the hole.
The rats learn to lever press or nose poke to start receiving the drug. The initial preference for all of the rats is the sucrose pellets. Over a period of four to eight weeks, some rats choose the cocaine over the pellets, and once a rat makes that shift to cocaine it persists. The females that choose cocaine also do this sooner than the males that ultimately choose cocaine Perry et al. Other investigators have also shown that, compared with males, more females choose cocaine over a food Kerstetter et al. These results suggest that estradiol is important for the initiation of drug taking, but once the behavior is well established, it is no longer under ovarian hormone regulation.
To summarize, hormones associated with the menstrual or estrous cycle may enhance the initial reinforcing effect that a female gets from a drug of abuse. But once the addictive behavior is established, the hormones do not continue to play as important a role in rats or humans. Thus, the menstrual cycle may contribute to the more rapid escalation of drug taking seen in women and female rats compared with men and male rats by increasing the positive effects of drugs of abuse during the initial stages of acquisition. The brains of males and females can differ from each other in more then one way Becker et al.
Not all sex differences in the brain develop in the same way and they are expressed in different ways. There are four types of sex differences Becker and Koob, ; McCarthy et al. The most obvious sex differences relate to reproduction, for example women ovulate and have babies while men produce sperm and don't get pregnant. These types of sex differences are called qualitative sex differences. Then there are more subtle sex differences, here the average or mean is different for males and females but the neural mechanisms are the same quantitative sex difference.
We see this is the psychomotor activation induced by amphetamine, where females exhibit a greater initial response to the same dose of the drug and greater behavioral sensitization Hu and Becker, ; Camp and Robinson, ; Camp et al. There are also sex differences where males and females exhibit the same response, but the mechanism underlying the trait is different convergent sex difference.
In this case there is convergence of function while the mechanisms mediating the trait are different for males and females. We think that some aspects of addiction are mediated by convergent sex differences as discussed above. For example, both males and females progress to compulsive drug taking and addiction, but in females estradiol is hypothesized to facilitate this transition by enhancing dopamine in dorsal striatum see discussion above.
Finally, there can be sex differences where the proportion of males and females that exhibit a trait is different population sex differences. The difference in the rate of escalation of drug taking is likely a population sex difference. Prenatal stress causes male rats to escalate drug taking so they resemble females Thomas et al. In this example, experience interacts with the developing brain to shift the proportion of male rats that show rapid escalation of drug taking to be comparable to females.
In one retrospective study, family violence in childhood, especially directed against the child, was associated with increased risk of injection drug use for both men and women Macleod et al. So the population of individuals with drug abuse problems may be increased by childhood abuse or trauma. In a prospective study, abused and neglected girls were more likely than boys from comparable backgrounds to abuse illegal drugs as adults Wilson and Widom, As this example shows, the number of men and women with drug abuse problems depends on the developmental experiences of both boys and girls and the outcome measure.
In some cases a population sex difference may appear to be quantitative sex difference if only the means of the dependent variable for males and females are considered—rather than looking for variation within males and females. Each type of sex difference contributes to the overall phenotype of an individual. While all four types of sex differences are acting within each person, individual types of sex differences may shape the phenotype of an individual in different ways.