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The world it evokes will seem impos- sibly stylised and mannered to most contemporary audiences, for whom elaborate amateur theatricals and the etiquette of pheasant shooting are unlikely to be famil- iar territory. The film's visual verve, however, is apparent at first viewing, notably in the rabbit hunt scene near the beginning and the frantic chase through the cor- ridors of the chateau towards the end, two scenes that echo and mirror each other.

Hunting is a leitmotif of La Regie dujeu, all at once visually as in the two scenes just mentioned , emotionally to the pursuit of game corresponds the pursuit of love, both likely to lead to bloody consequences and in the wider social context the pursuit of territorial ambition was even as Renoir filmed pushing Europe towards war.

The film's astonishing unity-in-diversity helps to explain Pierre Billard's judgement that Renoir's 'freedom kills the myth of representation', so that he 'takes his place in the cinema of modernity twenty years ahead of his time' Billard, Neither truly 'classic' - though the summit of the French cinema that generally goes by that name - nor yet 'modern ist ', La Regie dujeu marks the tran- sition par excellence from one kind of cinema to another. That judgement, of course, is necessarily influenced by the immense historical rupture brought about by the outbreak of war, which makes La Regie dujeu's tran- sitional status only too apparent.

It was one of 5 1 French films - along with Le Quai des brumes and Renoir's Zola adaptation La Bete humaine - to be banned by the censor just before war was declared, while the first Cannes festival, due to take place in September , had to be cancelled. The decade that was ending so omi- nously had nevertheless been a productive one for the cinema. The Conseil superieur du cinema, set up in , had shown the beginnings of state and governmental 12 HISTORY interest in this comparatively new art form, and the founding of the Cinematheque frangaise in went on to reinforce this, providing the institutional context within which generations of young critics and film-makers would get to know not only French, but European and American cinema.

Between 94 and films were produced each year during the decade not counting which, for obvious reasons, was 'incomplete' , and something of the order of admissions were annually recorded. It might have been thought that the social and economic disruption caused by wartime and the Occupation would have a calamitous effect on the nascent industry, but as we shall see that was to be only part of the story. The unavailability of American films meant that the French industry had the field to itself far more than in normal circumstances; a character in Jean-Pierre Melville's Resistance epic L'Armee des ombres says that France will know she is free when it is possible to watch Gone With The Wind on the Champs-Elysees, which poignantly suggests the cultural deprivation of which French film-makers were able to take often against their will advantage.

The Occupation cinema was brought under central - i. German-dominated - control in a way that severely restricted freedom of expression, but also introduced the first system of advances to producers and made the industry much more efficient. If this sounds suspiciously like a variant of 'Mussolini made the trains run on time', it should be borne in mind that many of the structures of post-war state aid to the cinema were modelled on those imposed under the Occupation.

Against this has to be set, of course, the loss of key personnel to the industry. Many of the leading producers, being Jewish, were not permitted to work. Renoir left for the USA where he was thenceforth to spend most of his time; Clair and Duvivier, more briefly, did likewise. Renoir's American work is by common consent less out- standing than his great films of the 1 s, not least because he was working within the constraints of the Hollywood system and had lost the acute sense of French society that makes La Grande Illusion or La Regie dujeu so remarkable.

Even so, the moody evocation of the Deep South in Swamp Water and the black comedy of The Diary of a Chambermaid remain powerful. His work of the s and 1 s, less mordant than that of the pre-war years, is nevertheless recognisably by the same hand. Clair enlisted Marlene Dietrich for The Flame of New Orleans , while Duvivier's post-war career reached its height with the sour and misanthropic Void le temps des assassins , starring Jean Gabin. The loss or diminished glory of these figures, and of others, was in a sense replicated on a smaller scale at the Liberation, when such figures as Guitry, Arletty and the actor Robert Le Vigan - a prominent collaborator who was never to work in France again - were tried and briefly imprisoned.

The leading pre-war director to remain in France was Carne, who worked in the Victorine Studios in Nice - thus within the Vichy zone. The first of his two wartime films, both scripted by Prevert, Les Visiteurs du soir, is a surreal medieval fantasy, fea- turing Arletty as the duplicitously androgynous emissary of Jules Berry's camp Devil in knee-breeches. This film, for all its visual extravagance, is alas characterised by some rather listless acting - something that is emphatically not true of Carne's best-known and most ambitious work, Les Enfants du Paradis released in though shot in , set in the Paris theatre world of the s see Figure 1.

Superb performances from such as Arletty, Jean-Louis Barrault and Pierre Brasseur have helped to make it probably the best-loved of French film classics, along with the richness of its mise-en-scene of the world of popular entertainment, which owes much to the magnificent sets designed by the Hungarian Jew Alexandre Trauner, working for obvious reasons clandestinely. Its at first tenuous-seeming relationship to the society of its time has of course to do with the omnipresence of censorship, but Edward Baron Turk finds liberating possibilities in its sexual poli- tics: 'By calling into question the authority of the family, the repression of sexual deviance, rigid gender roles, and the dependence of women on men, Les Enfants du Paradis assailed the foundation of Vichy's social order' Turk, Two of the outstanding film-makers to have made their mark under the Occupation were Jacques Becker whose Goupi Mains Rouges of 1 is an almost Gothic drama of peasant life and Jean Gremillon, for whom Prevert scripted Lumiere d'ete This film, about a Regie dujeu-like tangle of love and class rela- tionships in the Midi, was along with Gremillon's aviation drama Le del est a vous among the few major Occupation films to present a critical view of contem- porary society.

Le del est d vous, indeed, has often been seen as a parable of the solidarity of the Resistance. Gremillon's post-war career was a sorry catalogue of aborted or curtailed projects; he was to make only three feature films between and his death in , and remains an unjustly little-known director.

Collaborators, as we have seen, found their careers blighted or destroyed, while the disappearance of the protected domestic market seemed briefly to threaten the very foundations of the French industry. The Blum-Byrnes agreement of May allowed American films unrestricted access to the French market, but also introduced a quota of French films to be screened - initially 30 per cent, rising to 38 per cent in The agreement, widely denounced at the time as an act of treachery, appears in retrospect not only highly realistic, but premonitory of subsequent French cultural and cinematic relations with the USA, seeking accom- modation of the 'cultural exception' within an American hegemony the French industry could not hope to vanquish.

Along with the nationalisation of large exhibition circuits at the end of the war and the continuation of 'outrageously pro- tectionist' Crisp, 77 government advances and funding, the agreement protected the industry far more effectively than might have been thought at the time. The Centre national de la cinematographie CNC was set up in to oversee film finance - a striking example of the readiness the French state has always shown to intervene in cultural matters - and in established a fund to assist French film production and distribution, which has been largely responsible for the indus- try's high international profile ever since.

Squeezed between the heyday of the classic cinema and the burgeoning of the New Wave, it remains, in both senses of the word, largely invisible. Not a single film by Claude Autant-Lara, Jacques Becker or Christian-Jaque, three of the period's major directors, is available on video in the UK, and only one example of those directors' work - Becker's Casque d'or - has been shown on British television. Such neglect, while comprehensible, is scarcely justifiable. The period in question also marked the beginning, or culmination, of three of the major post-war directorial careers.

Robert Bresson's eschewal of professional actors and refusal of psychological depth in favour of an austerely materialist Catholic spirituality first becomes marked in his Bernanos adaptation Journal d'un cure de campagne Bresson's second feature, Un condamne a mort s'est echappe , details the escape based on real life of a Resistance detainee from Montluc prison in Lyon, presented as a sustained and suspenseful exercise in the operation of grace.

Jacques Tati once said that he would like to work with Bresson - an odd remark considering the conspicuous lack of humour in the latter's films, but less anomalous than it might appear if we bear in mind the meticulously choreographed style and innovatively dislocatory use of sound that characterise Tad's work. His three fea- tures of the period - Jour de fete , Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot and Mon oncle - are among the most acute satires of the galloping modernisation that in some 30 years transformed France from a largely rural into a primarily industrial economy.

The cults of speed explicitly linked with the USA , the seaside holiday and household gadgets are his targets in the three features; to describe M. Hulot as a 'reflection of the increased standardization of daily life in France' Ross, , however portentous it may sound, says a good deal about his enduring appeal and relevance. Cocteau's two best-known films are La Belle et la bete and Orphee , imbued with the spirit of what, in a doubtless conscious response to Carne and Bazin, he dubbed 'magical realism'.

The earlier film's evocation of the world of Dutch painting and Orphee's sumptuous special effects have lasted rather better than the matinee-idol narcissism of Jean Marais in the leading roles. The 'real objects' in these films may appear to be very far removed from the France of the time at which they were made, but this would be to disregard the strong homosex- ual element in La Belle et la bete's 'love that dare not speak its name', or the allusions to the heavily coded world of the Resistance in Orphee's abundance of seemingly nonsensical passwords.

Jean-Pierre Melville in directed by all accounts with considerable interfer- ence from the author the cinematic adaptation of Cocteau's best-known text, Les Enfants terribles. Melville's place in the history of French cinema, however, rests less on this or his earlier literary adaptation, of Vercors's Le Silence de la mer , than on the influence of Hollywood 'action cinema' on his work. The work of directors such as Howard Hawks and Samuel Fuller, with its stress on laconic, often violent action and its narrative terseness, was to have a major effect on the New Wave film- makers of the succeeding generation - an effect for which Melville was in large part responsible.

He was also the first major French director after Pagnol to set up his own production company, operating artisanally on the fringes of the industry. This 17 French Cinema: A Student's Guide enabled him to reconcile financial autonomy - if he and the New Wave directors so admired the 'action cinema' school it was largely because it had been able to produce memorable films often on very low budgets - and a degree of artistic inde- pendence that for his critics verges on the mannered.

Bob le flambeur was the first of his gangster movies, a stylised riposte to the production-line serie noire films, often starring Eddie Constantine, that constituted the French mainstream cinema's first response to the influx of American productions after the war. The film-makers so far mentioned in this section are all in greater or lesser degree atypical of the dominant Fourth Republic cinema.

That cinema's frequent recourse to literary adaptation, its reliance on careful scriptwriting often by the duo of Jean Aurenche and Pierre Bost , its general air of businesslike professionalism and sup- posed unadventurousness, were all laughed out of fashion by the New Wave, but have in the past decade or so staged a resurgence through the popularity of the 'heritage film'. The strictures of Truffaut may well have been applicable to the jour- neyman work of such as Jean Delannoy, who signed forgettable adaptations of Cocteau L'Eternel Retour, and Sartre Les Jeux sont faits, , but two film- makers of the period at least display subversive and ironic qualities that should not pass unnoticed.

Claude Autant-Lara's move from Communist Party activist after the war to Front National MEP in the mids scarcely did him credit, but the dozen or so films he made under the Fourth Republic often give a mordant por- trayal of the suffocating pettiness and hypocrisy of the time. Le Diable au corps and Le Ble en herbe , adapted from Radiguet and Colette respectively, both deal with burgeoning adolescent sexuality and caused scandals through their depiction of relationships between a younger man and an older woman.

Le Ble en herbe was among the first post-war films to fall foul of the power exercised by French mayors to ban from their cities films that had received the national censor's authorisation. La Traversee de Paris teamed Gabin and Bourvil in a tale of black-marketeering in occupied Paris - the forerunner of the determinedly unheroic view of the Occupation years that was to come to the fore in the s.


  1. L’interculturalisme québécois dans le contexte du multiculturalisme canadien.
  2. Nasze historie;
  3. Epilogue.
  4. The Little Gentleman.

More bilious and misanthropic still is the work of Henri-Georges Clouzot, who found himself for a while banished from the industry at the Liberation because of the harshly cynical view of provincial life in his poison-pen drama, Le Corbeau Le Salaire de la peur sustains for more than two and a half hours the suspense of its tale of European expatriates driving lorryloads of nitroglycerine over treacherous Central American roads to quench an oil-rig fire. Yves Montand, first drawn to public attention in Carne's Les Portes de la nuit 1 , gives one of the defining performances of his career here.

Most frightening of all his works perhaps is Les Diaboliques , with Simone Signoret in one of her best-known roles. The 18 History film's sadistic martyrisation of the character played by Vera Clouzot the director's wife becomes even more chilling when we know that she suffered in real life from a weak heart that was not long afterwards to kill her.

The film's ending clearly inspired that, more than 30 years later, of Adrian Lyne's Fatal Attraction, but in its manipulation of actors and audience alike is surely closer to Hitchcock - a major influence on the New Wave, present here too in what it would be quite unjust to dismiss as cinema de papa. Rene Clement is the other directorial name most often associated with the cinema of this period. Jeux interdits tells of the impact of the war on two young children who create an animals' cemetery before being roughly separated from each other. The film's view of childhood, while less barbed than that of Vigo, is nevertheless a determinedly unidealised one, a very long way from the Hollywood of the time.

Clement's other major work of the period took the form of literary adaptations, from Zola Gervaise of or Marguerite Duras Barrage contre le pacifique of Carne proved unable to sustain his pre-war popularity after the Liberation. Les Pontes de la nuit was severely criticised as dejd vu, the doom-laden Prevert script and heavy fatalism with which it is imbued not suiting the more upbeat expectations of the post-Liberation era. Thenceforth his career tailed off sadly, the Zola adaptation Therese Raquin being his most successful later film, thanks largely to Simone Signoret's vampish performance in the title role.

Becker produced at once his most lyrical and his most doom-laden film with Casque d'or, a reconstruction of the nine- teenth-century Parisian underworld, as well as such realistically observed dramas as Rue de VEstrapade , a forerunner of the New Wave. Signoret gives what is probably the performance of her life, and Serge Reggiani as her doomed young lover exudes tragic intensity. Becker went on to give Jean Gabin one of his great post-war roles as the portly gangster yearning for retirement in the serie noire Touchez pas au grisbi This director's reputation is less by some way than it deserves to be, for he died prematurely in , just before the release of the prison escape drama Le Trou, which remains among the finest French films of its period.

Industrially and aesthetically alike, the 'Fourth Republic years' were, it is now beginning to be recognised, richer and more complex than might at first appear. Yet - with the handful of exceptions already mentioned - it lacked the innovative verve of earlier and later periods. It was a time of reconstruction and consolidation for the industry, which for most of the period succeeded in attracting more specta- tors to French than to American films. The seeds of innovation were being sown elsewhere, in the pages of the new cinematic journals that appeared during and after the war.

L'Ecran francais began clandestinely in and lasted ten years, 19 French Cinema: A Student's Guide during which it brought to the fore notions of the cinema as a vehicle for ideologi- cal engagement and as a language in its own right. Alexandre Astruc's 'Naissance d'une nouvelle avant-garde' 'Birth of a new avant-garde' inaugurated a mode of writing on the cinema which the journals Positif and Cahiers du cinema were to continue into the s.

It is in a sense provocative to bracket those names together for, in their earlier days at least, the two journals cordially detested each other. Positif was sympathetic to Surrealism and to the French Communist Party, while among the major influences on Cahiers was the existentialist Catholicism of Andre Bazin. Haifa century on, both journals still exist and thrive, albeit with much ideological passion spent. If Cahiers remains to non-French audiences at least much the better known, this is because so many of those who wrote for it went on to direct films in their own right.

Chabrol, Godard, Rivette, Rohmer, Truffaut - the patron saints of the New Wave - all began as Cahiers critics in what remains the most striking mass migration from writing- about to writing-in film history has to offer. Their interest in low-budget American cinema led them to pursue with zeal the politique des auteurs - a pantheonisation of figures such as Howard Hawks and Samuel Fuller, whose individuality in making 'their' films in the teeth of studio-imposed constraints was lauded in a sometimes extravagant manner.

Positif 's favourite sons, such as Otto Preminger and Raoul Walsh, have lasted somewhat less well by comparison. It exemplifies a tendency in French cultural life - illustrated at very much the same time by the work of such 'new novelists' as Alain Robbe-Grillet and Nathalie Sarraute - for critical and theoretical reflection to stimulate and feed through into artistic pro- duction. It illustrates the importance of political loyalties, or their absence, already marked in the cinema of the Popular Front era, in informing aesthetic and cultural debate.

For reasons we shall now explore, was the year in which all these trends converged to inaugurate what was rapidly recognised as a new era for the French cinema. The major intellectual and personal influence on them was the critic Andre Bazin, a passionate advocate of 'realism, mise-en-scene, and deep focus which he saw in opposition to montage ' Monaco, 6 , and of the politique des auteurs.

European art-house directors, such as Renoir or Rossellini, had traditionally been treated as the 'authors' of their films, in much the same way as Balzac or Baudelaire were of the literary texts they signed. The American low-budget cinema, on the other hand, tended to be thought of as a commercial and studio-based product, to which Godard pays homage in his dedication of A bout de souffle to Monogram Pictures.

Cahiers' innovation was to treat film-makers such as Hawks or Fuller as the authors of their films in much the same way as their more 'respectable' European counterparts. The New Wave directors, like their Hollywood predecessors, worked individually and creatively within often severe budgetary constraints and the conventions of studio genre. Their films were frequendy self-referential Godard making a brief Hitchcock-like appearance in his own A bout de souffle, Truffaut's Les Coups containing an obvious visual quotation from Vigo's Zero de conduite , as though to assert the value of film as a form of artistic expression on a par with the novel or the theatre.

Allusions to art cinema and Hollywood action film sat side by side in a manner that, nowadays, with the erosion of the barrier between 'high' and 'popular' culture, seems unremarkable, but was extremely innovative at the time. The literary adaptation and the costly studio set-up were anathema to these film- makers, whose use of hand-held cameras and location filming gave their work a constant charge of the unexpected.

They were also greatly helped by the introduc- tion, in , of the avance sur recettes, a system of government loans, granted on the basis of a working script, to enable films to be produced. One in five French films benefits from this funding, though only one in ten of these has been sufficiently successful at the box office to pay off the loan in full Hayward, The system thus effectively works as a source of subsidy, another reason for the often- remarked thriving independent and experimental sector known as art et essai of the French industry.

The influence of Hitchcock is marked in the exchange of roles between the central characters in both films played by Gerard Blain and Jean-Claude Brialy , the latter of whom represents Parisian would-be sophistication against the provincial benightedness of the other. Chabrol has had a wildly uneven career, often filming neither wisely nor too well, but at his best he is the master denouncer of the hypocrisy and pretentions of the bour- geoisie.

Misanthropy and misogyny are other components of his work and both are 21 French Cinema: A Student's Guide plain in Les Bonnes Femmes , about the varying fortunes and ambitions of four young women who work in an electrical shop, an emblem of the modernisation of French society. Les Biches features a bisexual love triangle in Saint-Tropez, probably the first major French film to deal overtly with lesbianism, albeit in a manner that changes in sexual politics have caused to appear dubious. The year - annus mirabilis of post-war cinema - also saw the feature debuts of Truffaut and Godard.

The former's Les Coups remains among the cinema's most touching evocations of a less-then-happy childhood, modelled in many ways on Truffaut's own. This earned an unprecedented standing innovation at the Cannes festival, from which Truffaut had a few years before been banned, and the all-but-envious homage of Renoir. The homoerotic intensity of the relationship between Jules and Jim, mediated it would be possible to argue through their shared passion for Catherine, now gives the film a strikingly modern feel. The theme of tragic or impossible love, and its close linkage with death, recurs in more conventional format with La Peau douce , generally regarded as Truffaut's most Chabrolesque work.

Le Mepris gives Brigitte Bardot her major serious dramatic role, and stages an eloquent enactment of the contradictory pressures on the film-maker to make money and produce significant art. Much of Godard's work during this decade displays an unnerving prescience. Bande apart alludes to the genoci- dal conflict in Rwanda 30 years before it came to widespread attention. Masculin feminin pre-echoes the debates about gender and sex roles that were to achieve such importance in succeeding decades.

Pierrot lefou suggests much of what was to follow in Godard's subsequent work, with its strikingly poetic use of colour, its use of mockingly didactic, quasi-Brechtian tableaux and its references to the Vietnam War. Rohmer's work remains, certainly in French and probably in world cinema, unique in that he has never lost money on a film in a year career.

His low-budget approach, reliance on highly crafted dialogue and fondness for ironic philosophis- ing make a 'Rohmer film' instantly recognisable, and in these respects he can, even by those not uniformly enthusiastic about his work, be seen as the supreme auteur. Le Signe du lion is his most savage work, about an over-trusting bohemian's destitute summer in Paris.

His work for the remainder of this period took the form of short films, often made for television, a further illustration of the economic awareness that informs his work. Rivette's love for lengthy, intricate narratives was apparent from his first feature, Paris nous appartient 1 , and has caused him to have a rather chequered career.

La Religieuse , his only other feature of the period, was briefly banned by the censor for its supposedly scandalous evocation of convent life, and authorised to be exported only under the distancing title of Suzanne Simonin, la religieuse de Diderot, much as Godard's La Femme mariee had to be retitled Unefemme mariee before it got past the censor.

Resnais, the great cineast of memory, remains unique in his exclusive use of pre-written scripts, the basis for the most extensive formal experimentation with montage among contem- porary film-makers. Novelists Marguerite Duras and Alain Robbe-Grillet, both themselves to go on to direct films, scripted respectively Hiroshima mon amour and L'Annee derniere a Marienbad Hiroshima intertwines the horrors of the nuclear bomb and its central female character's love affairs with a German during 23 French Cinema: A Student's Guide the war and a Japanese afterwards, broaching at once political and ethnic taboos.

Nowadays, with a more widespread awareness that 'the personal is political', its 'dime-store novel' plot as the central character, played by Emmanuelle Riva, her- self describes it appears less audacious than it did at the time, when its sympathetic evocation of a love affair with the enemy was moving into largely uncharted terri- tory. The film, as important a first feature as A bout de souffle, makes vivid, often startling use of subjective visual flashbacks, cutting back and forth between the Hiroshima of 1 and the French provincial town of Nevers under the Occupation.

L'Annee derniere a Marienbad see Figure 1. It is impossible to tell whether its love story, with Delphine Seyrig as the object of two men's desire, is past, present, future, fantasy, or all or none of these. In this respect the film is analogous to the experiments of the 'new novelists' - including Robbe-Grillet - with subjective, fragmented or even contradictory narration. A strikingly, even flamboyantly, modern work, it is also an evocation of and homage to the golden age of black and white film-making; there is scarcely another film it would be so difficult to imagine in colour.

Muriel , also starring Delphine Seyrig, ran into censorship difficulties because of its refer- ences to torture in the Algerian war, much as Godard's Le Petit Soldat had done three years earlier. Censorship of film was rife in the Gaullist era - the downside perhaps of the state's interest in the medium. Officially instituted for the first time during the Occupation, it continued in force thereafter, to such an extent that during the eight years of the Algerian War 'not a single film on the Algerian question was granted a visa' Hayward, Not until Giscard d'Estaing became president in did it all but disappear.

The succes de scandale enjoyed by Louis Malle's second feature, Les Amants , is there to remind us that sexual censorship was scarcely less to be reckoned with though less specific to France in this period than its political counterpart. Les Amants stars Jeanne Moreau as a bored bourgeois trophy wife who leaves her family and lover behind after a night of love with a young student she met on the road.

The aforementioned succes de scandale pertained to the film's inevitably discreet depiction - or evocation - of cunnilingus, but more profoundly shocking than this might be the wife's seeming abandonment of not only her husband, but her young daughter. Malle's role as starmaker was reinforced by Vie privee of , with its barely disguised references to the real life of its star, Brigitte Bardot.

Varda is beyond doubt French cinema's leading woman director. The number of films directed by women in France has increased exponentially over the past decade in particular, but until the post-war period a woman director was a rarity, 24 Image Not Available Figure 1. Cleo de 5 a 7 tells in real time the story of a singer who suspects she may have cancer.

Hope and encourage- ment are given to her by a young conscript soldier she meets in the Pare Montsouris while waiting for the result of hospital tests - a scene given particular poignancy by the fact that he is at the end of a period of leave from Algeria. The counterposing of a life under threat from within and one under threat from without figures the interplay of the personal and the political we have already seen at work in Hiroshima mon amour, as well as suggesting how film-makers found ways of incorporating references to the Algerian War into their work without falling foul of the censor.

Varda's other work in this period was in the short or documentary format, apart from the ironic love triangle Le Bonkeur of Demy Varda's husband made two major films during this period, Lola and Les Parapluies de Cherbourg Set in western French seaports Nantes and Cherbourg respectively , they refer, in a perhaps deceptively lighthearted way, to the twofold processes of modernisation and decolonisation under way in the France of the time see Ross, , for a masterly analysis of these. Lola's eponymous heroine, played by Anouk Aimee, oscillates between a French and an American lover before her first love returns driving a vast American car to reclaim her at the end.

Les Parapluies de Cherbourg, for all the frothiness of its entirely sung dialogue to music by Michel Legrand , actually offers a serious treatment of the effects of modernisation along with those of the Algerian War. Catherine Deneuve, in her first major role, becomes pregnant by the man she loves the night before he leaves for Algeria; on his return he finds her married off to a wealthy local jeweller, in part because her mother does not believe that a garage mechanic would be an acceptable match for her.

The irony of this, in the increasingly motorised French society of the time, becomes manifest in the film's final sequence, where we see Michel as the proud owner of a large and gleaming garage. Bresson, Tati and Melville, all of whom had come to the fore in the war years, pro- duced arguably their finest work during this period.

Bresson's Pickpocket and Au hasard Balthazar refine his elliptical precision still further; editing here becomes a spiritual quest. Pickpocket's anguished Dostoevskyan hero is never 'analysed' a term anathema to Bresson in any detail. His compulsive thieving is observed in tight phenomenological detail, and only in the film's final sequence, where in prison he is visited by Jeanne for whom he realises the depth of his love, does it dawn on him and the audience that it has represented his way to redemp- tion. Au hasard Balthazar realises the tour de force of making the tribulations of a 26 HISTORY donkey its central 'character' into a spiritual odyssey - Bresson's rejection of the very idea of the actor carried to its furthest extent - while also offering a surpris- ingly barbed view of modernised France through the presence of the villainous blouson noir Gerard.

Tati's only feature of the period, Playtime , is a prodi- giously choreographed near-silent comedy, which lost a vast amount of money and all but ended his career. Nowadays, it appears not only as his finest work, extraor- dinarily intricate in its complexity of visual organisation, but also as a striking prefiguration of the postmodern era in which everywhere looks like everywhere else.

The film follows a group of tourists as they journey round a concrete and glass Paris whose iconic landmarks, such as the Eiffel Tower, are visible only in travel agency posters. Melville's masterpiece Le Samourdi carries his stylisation of the gangster movie to iconographic lengths, in a pared-down narrative with minimal dialogue sustained largely by the androgynous performance, by turns violent and vulnerable, of Alain Delon. By the end of our period the New Wave as any kind of unified movement or entity had ceased to exist some would situate its demise as early as The film-makers associated with it were pursuing widely divergent paths - from the increasingly politicised experimentation of Godard to the more commercial work of Truffaut or Chabrol - all with significant success.

Part at least of the reason for this had to do with the actors and actresses their work brought to the fore. Un pastel, h. Deux portraits de S. Un portrait de S. His posthumous sale, Christie's, She lent a pastel thought to be by Perronneau, but now attributed to Hoin to exhibitions in Paris in and Her posthumous sale of pictures and drawings Paris, Georges Petit, 2—3. Dictionary , genealogy Chaumont. Pastels: Carriera, Callisto ; Coles, Clarissa. Venice , drawings collector, Venice, from whom Crozat q. Considerable confusion surrounds this improbably spelt name variants are Chelchelsberg, Chechelberg.

He was the German resident in Venice recorded as consul from , and a member of a family that had held this position for over years. Gasparo Chechel, presumably his father, was also an art collector, owning mainly Flemish paintings according to his inventory. Giorgio Chechel seems to have acquired some of his collection from Feldmarschall Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg.

Giorgio's son Gaspar also seems to have played an important role in the Fondaco de Tedeschi in Venice, and also collected drawings. Giorgio's grandson, by his daughter Caterina Pezzana, married Elisabeth Le Blond, daughter of the French consul and probably sister of the subject of Rosalba's pastel.

Trained as a lawyer, he worked as a museum administrator from He was appointed assistant curator at the Louvre in , and was directeur des Beaux-Arts, Paris His memoirs are of interest. In a letter to Mme de Tencin, 5. He was himself the subject of pastels by Hoare and Knapton. His posthumous inventory recorded "dans une autre chambre au fond du corridor donnant sur le jardin deux tableaux pastels peints sous verre portraits de M. They were probably versions of the La Tour pastels, one of them being the copy of Belle-Isle now in Metz.

A modest art collection was sold after his death, realising livres; the Perronneau portraits of Chevotet and his wife were not recorded. He supported the poor and was a literary patron. He owned Giulio Romano's pastel self-portrait now in the Uffizi. His inventory Rome, 1. His acquisitions started before his marriage in to the heiress of the Crozat fortune, but it was during the period after his return to Paris that most of his purchases were made, at public sales e.

Jullienne, and privately. The collection was dispersed after his disgrace. Part of his collection descended to the princesse de Faucigny-Lucinge q. Paris, Boileau, Paillet, Together with the son of the composer Bizet he founded the Banque automobile, one of the earliest institutions to provide credit for car purchase.

Pastels: Drouais, enfant au bourdon. London , of 8 Vigo Street, London: held an important exhibition of pastels in v. London Some of the firm's stock was included in a sale at Sotheby's, A keen gardner and racehorse owner, he also collected a wide range of pictures, textiles, furniture, porcelain etc. Others were sold at auction, Christie's, 7. Clarke q. Dictionary , genealogy, Bayern Bonn, Roslin Lot Restout, attr. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Clive Milnes-Coates, 2nd Bt , who married a daughter of the Marquess of Crewe in and added her name in The pastels in his collection were presumably acquired by Sir Edward.

Three were on loan to the Bowes Museum in Smith, various pstls Lots anon. A number of pastels are now in the Hermitage, some or all acquired through prince Galitzin. Pastels: Russell, Mrs Barber. Germain Seligman visited Gabriel Cognacq's collection at 44 avenue Bugeaud on His daughter married Antoine-Philippe Gentil, premier valet de chambre de la garde-robe du roi. Some records confuse the two.

Pastels: Tilson, Lady London , fine art dealers. Paul Colnaghi was employed from around ; his sons Martin and Dominic joined around In Paul and his son Dominic established the firm of P. In P. Colnaghi took over the firm of Gutekunst and Deprez, and Colnaghi was subsequently run by Otto Gutekunst after the retirement of Edmund Deprez Martin Colnaghi went bankrupt in , and died in ; but his son, Martin Henry Colnaghi , took up art dealing in ; he was never a partner in his uncle's firm, but worked for Henry Graves before establishing the Marlborough Gallery.

He employed R. Dictionary , genealogy Inv. Rome, The entire collection of the doctor, "lately deceased", was sold at auction on Dictionary , genealogy, France Lit. Ce beau morceau peint en pastel, porte 13 pouces de haut, sur 11 pouces de large: il vient du cabinet de M. Mariette, no. He owned several pastels by Russell Godbold; Love songs and matches; Age of bliss.

Her brother married a van Zuylen. Bruges, Pachtere, 7. Giovannino; 6 testi. Hauteur, 20 pouces; largeur, 16 pouc. Pastels: La Tour, auto. New York, Anderson, Dictionary , artists Sale p. One ditto by F. A Venus and Cupid by ditto. He was active in many art committees, and participated in numerous exhibitions. He lent a La Tour pastel to Paris b; by it belonged to his wife's nephew.

His fortune was estimated at his death at c. His collection, of nearly lots, included paintings, drawings, prints, enamels and miniatures, and some portraits, classified separately. Pierre, 18 pouces de haut, sur 14 pouces 6 lignes de large [22 livres; Glomy] Lot [Anon:] Une Madeleine peinte au pastel. Paris, Galerie Jean Charpentier, Paris, Remy, He was the son of an organ bulder, plain John Courcelle, and initially taught music before taking a degree at Worcester College, Oxford as a mature student.

He was rector of Ardrossan but held no office after , living on independent means at 24 Arundel Gardens, Notting Hill. Paris, Escribe, His very extensive collections were sold in several sales in , and included pastels by La Tour, Perronneau and Greuze as well as a good many anonymes. New York, Christie's, Panshanger House, built by the 5th Earl, was demolished in , and the Sotheby's sale followed. Dictionary , genealogy London, Sotheby's, Charles Coypel, du tableau du Correge qui est au Palais Royal: elle est sous une glace [72 livres; St.

After the Revolution he formed a collection of portraits of illustrious persons, mainly from the reign of Louis XIV. Portrait de Voltaire, par Ch. Coypel, en Portrait de C. Bol Lot La Rosalba. The sale that took place shortly after the Gaston's death included a group of miniatures as well as large numbers of coins, medals, cameos and intaglios, but only one pastel. Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, The Mengs pastels were reported by Diderot in Pastels: Mengs, courtisane ; philiosophe. Cronier rose to be managing director of the firm and after Say's death trustee of his estate.

He acquired French and English 18th century portraits, as well as paintings by Watteau and Fragonard, from Gimpel and others during the period until his suicide in. Acting in concert with Jaluzot, founder of the Printemps department store, they used the Say estate to take an enormous long position which proved disastrous when the price of sugar halved. Criminal proceedings against Jaluzot commenced, while Cronier took cyanide and simultaneously shot himself.

The posthumous sale in does not include all his collection, as he occasionally made exchanges he acquired a pastel child by Russell from Gimpel in After his death in , the collection was sold to Diderot as agent for Catherine II, and is now in the Hermitage.

A group of pastels by Wallerant Vaillant were said to have been acquired from Crozat by prince Galitzin q. Courajod, Paris, , I, p. Catalogue des tableaux du cabinet de M. Les quatre saisons en quatre demi figures de femmes avec leus attributs. Un portrait de profil. Une vierge.

Marie_Claireier_ by Elena Gavrykova - Issuu

Portrait de Louis XV esquisse. Henri also owned a group of portraits from Wertmuller's Bordeaux period. Sales of Chinese porcelain and other items took place in London, Sotheby's, 7. His posthumous sale was scheduled for 3. None of the nine pastels in his sale is known even from reproductions today. His broad ranging collections were dispersed in a series of sales from His collection, "removed from his late Apartments at St James's and his House at Twickenham", was sold in three parts, with Christie's taking charge of the pictures; sales of medals and drawings took place over the following weeks.

Charles H. The British Museum acquired approximately drawings or prints from him, including a pastel by Drummond. Auguste's posthumous sale included an important collection of early prints. His interests ranged from paintings and miniatures to oriental art and antiquities - some of which appear in a Vuillard portrait of him. During the war some of the collection was seized by the ERR; pastels included a Greuze jeune fille and a Nanteuil, Hardouin. After his death, his collection of miniatures was split into two groups, one given to the Louvre and the other bought by Wildenstein and sold complete to Sir Charles Clore.

David-Weill's philanthropic tradition is continued by his grandson Michel David-Weill. Morice, "La collection David-Weill His eldest son, James Dawkins , started his Grand Tour in when he inherited his father's estates; he developed an interest in archaeology, and collected pictures; apart from his own portrait, he commissioned a set of the Seasons from Rosalba.

His brother Henry, the subject of a pastel by La Tour, was admitted to the Society of Dilettanti on the strength of James's celebrity. Their pictures descended to Henry's grandson, the Rev. The collection passed to their son Edward Henry Frederick Dawkins before the sale. Lot 9: James Dawkins [80 gns; Toogood]; Lot the same, ov. He lent pastels by Perronneau to the Cent pastels exhibition in Fellowes; Singer.

He later turned to the cinema. He built up a collection of French 18th century engravings from the age of 40 before switching to old master drawings and then paintings. He sold these in ; a collection which cost Fr, sold for Fr1. But he restarted collecting immediately, repurchasing some of his own collection at the sale and later. A number of drawings were sold in Pierre Decourcelle", Les Arts , , , p. Mme Poisson.

The group consisted of five pastels thought to be by La Tour, four of which seem to have been acquired by Auguste de Gas in an anonymous Paris sale, All four, with a further La Tour magistrat , were lent to the Paris a exhibition. Degas also owned a Rosalba autoritratto. Degas frequently visited Saint-Quentin. Shortly after the death of his father, the affairs of the family bank obliged Degas to seek to sell much of the collection, and some of the pastels were acquired by Hector Brame. Her will included pastels by Liotard and Pond.

Robert Edward DELL , journalist, first editor of the Burlington magazine , ; he resigned to become Paris correspondent of the Manchester Guardian , and also owned Shirleys Ltd, a gallery at 9 boulevard Malesherbes. In a review of the Doucet sale for the Burlington , Dell expressed infuriation that a pastel by La Tour should fetch more than a canvas by Fragonard. He was expelled from France after the war, having criticised the the French Government's peace negotiations in He later lived in New York. He lent several pastels to the Paris exhibition, which he organised with his associates Max Rothschild and R.

Dell's attribution of two pastels to Engleheart q. Hamilton, Adelaide Payne ; Phelps, Handel. His son became an MP in , and he was well known as a patron and connoisseur. Although his wealth earned him the nickname of Peter the Tsar, his prodigious spending led to financial difficulties and he shot himself at his London home, 15 Grosvenor Square.

The attribution of the pastels in the sale presumably that of his son, Peter III, should be treated with caution. After his father's death in , he took charge of the family villa at San Donato near Florence, part of which he turned over to a workshop for the manufacture of silks, while also enlarging the extensive art collection.

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An expedition to the Crimea which he organised in resulted in the numerous scientific publications. In he married Napoleon's niece, princesse Mathilde q. Demidov's collections and titles passed to his nephew Paul Demidov London, The Wallace Collection, Pastels: I. Based in Paris, rue de Berry c. He was in competition with Duveen, and accusations of forgery of goods supplied by Demotte led to a defamation action that ended when Demotte was found dead near Versailles.

His business passed to his son Lucien, who committed suicide in Demotte Inc. Journu ; Mme Legrix ; Mme Molles. Paris, Chevallier, Dutch paintings figured strongly in his collection, but the pastels seem mainly to have been Perronneau's portraits of members of his family. Perronneau , p. In an inventory of 3. The premises of "Desmarest, graveur depuis " are still preserved in the Palais-Royal. A large collection of drawings and prints were in the sale; possibly the same vendor as the dealer in the sale of "J.

Desmarets, cessation de commerce". A Desmarets was a commissaire priseur from rue du Bouloi, c. Paris, Rouseau, Geoffroy, 4. His albums of architectural drawings are in a number of public collections, including Berlin and St Petersburg. His grandson Philippe d'Estailleur-Chanteraine had a pastel said to be by Perronneau of the naturalist Daubenton. They were also supporters of the arts. His sale, Paris, Drouot, Pouchet, This was dispersed in two sales and , following his widow's death.

His son Antoine-Nicolas , also a magistrate, was the author of the Voyage pittoresque de Paris and des environs de Paris , of several gardening treatises, and of an extension of his father's work, the Vies des dameux architectes et sculpteurs… Dezallier d'Argenville: Paris, The celebrated type founder was Firmin Didot He may have been the Didot whose sale took place in His son, Ambroise-Firmin Didot, later known as Ambroise Firmin-Didot , diplomat and traveller, took over the business in He was interested in classical literature, typography, paper making and engraving, and his reference books on the Drevets and Les Graveurs de portraits en France , are of great use.

He presumably assembled the collection of 18 pastels and drawings by Wallerant Vaillant which were lent to the Paris exhibition by his son Alfred Firmin-Didot , also a printer. Didot: Paris, Henry Lacoste, After his death his widow married Abel Vautier, a parlementaire from Caen. They cannot now be identified specifically. The case of Shrager v Basil Dighton Ltd , in which he was sued by a dissatisfied client, is frequently cited as a legal precedent. He travelled in Italy in , and wrote to Rosalba Carriera on He was Walter Gay's agent. His elder brother was Murray W.

Reading Bertron q. Pastels: Greenhill, lady. Paris, Georges Petit, It was then initially lent and finally given to the Louvre in He collaborated with Remy on providing expertises for estate inventories. Ils viennent de la vente du Baron d'Olback. Ils viennent de la vente de notre cabinet, No. Ce morceau est peint au pastel et sous verre.

He created an important collection of mediaeval works his first piece was bought at the age of 16 , many acquired with advice from Marius Paulme, who prepared an illustrated manuscript catalogue of the whole collection. His collection was preserved and continued by his family, notably his son Pierre Dormeuil and grandson, Xavier Dormeuil , following whose death a number of pastels were sold.

A watercolour by Adrien Karbowsky shows the main drawing room around with a wall on which four La Tour pastels are hung among Chardin, Ducreux, Lawrence and Reynolds canvases. After the sale, Doucet moved to Neuilly, where he started a new collection, of the avant garde of his day. To both of these he brought his legendary perfectionism. Part of his collections descended in the family to his great-nephew Jean Angladon-Dubrujeaud and are now part of the Fondation Angladon in Avignon.

Joubin, "Jacques Doucet", Gazette des beaux-arts ,. Fr; Fr; Stettiner] Lot Perronneau, enfant , [est. Fr15,; Fr14,; Graat]. Dr Anton C. Although Anton was particularly interested in Dutch art, his collection was much broader, and was noted for its eclectic character. Among a significant holding of French drawings are several sheets by Lemoine and a pastel by La Tour.

In addition to the sale of old master pictures and drawings; portrait miniatures, gold boxes and objects of vertu on At the Lemoyne sale in he bought a Vivien pastel which reappeared in two of his sales, Paris, Ridel, He joined the Louvre in and rose to become conservateur en chef. He made extensive donations to various museums. Jean's son Adolphe was the vendor in the sale. Mme du Barry's own collections were dispersed in a number of sales, notably by Paillet, Paris, Remy, Le Brun, His sale included one pastel.

A later sale took place at Drouot on Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, Paulme, 7. Paris , marchand de tableaux. He acted on behalf of the duc de Choiseul in sales in the s. An advertisement appeared in the Post man for Some others in Pastelle. Boucher, et un portrait. Le tout sous verre. Duke", Old Watercolour Society's Club 49th annual vol. Richardson, Jr ; Russell, woman. Villenave q. A sale took place in Paris, Oudart, Barre, Charles E.

He was a generous donor to Harvard and the Fogg Art Museum; his gifts of some 50 French pictures included a Boucher portrait of Mme de Pompadour as well as some pastels by La Tour auto ; dame. Bastide" to the Salon de Toulouse In he married Catherine Sellier. An inv. Hauteur 25 pouces; largeur 20 pouces 6 lignes.

Rubens, Ant. Paris , established c. Initially a stationery shop, the firm developed into art dealing from its practice of exchanging artists' materials for pictures. Paul Durand-Ruel , the founder's son, was responsible for the firm's association with impressionism. His library of some items including the first four Shakespeare folios was donated to University College, London; he was also a donor to the British Museum. His sale included a large collection of books, engravings, sculpture and pictures of mixed quality. Of the drawings a number of sheets are now in the Louvre or at Chantilly.

He presented a "Perronneau" girl with a cat to the National Gallery in Much earlier c. Among the pastels supplied by the firm were a "pair of old French pastels by Perronneau", acquired from Lady Dorothy Nevill in and sent on approval to the Stotesburys in , still unpaid in The firm's records are at the Getty Research Institute. Nelson EDDY , singer, actor and amateur painter and sculptor. He initially collected pewter but later turned to English 17th century and modern French painting. A pastel by Roslin, M. Theodore T. Ellis made his money in blanket manufacture, newspapers and printing; he was publisher of the Worcester Telegram and became co-owner of the Chicago Daily News in His art collection ranged from Winslow Homer to a painting once thought to be by Leonardo.

Pastels: Coypel, marquise de Lamure. Ignaz's nephew Charles Ephrussi , amateur art historian and collector, came to Paris c. He founded the Gazette des beaux-arts. Charles's uncles Michel and Maurice also lived in Paris. Collections , which she bequeathed to the Institut de France. His four sons and their descendants included bankers, collectors, composers and painters. Emile Beaumont , banker and patron of the arts, adopted British nationality; he lived at Piccadilly, Lord Byron's house, and Falconwood.

Rodolphe , painter and composer, built a palace in Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia, now a museum for Arab musical instruments, inherited by his son Leo and his wife Edwina Prue His enormous library and collections of old master drawings, prints, as well as paintings, sculptures and objets d'art were sold after his death by Christie's, Pastels by Luttrell and Hamilton may have been included.

La Tour, d'Alembert, ont. Paris, Le Brun, Ce beau pastel est de la plus riche couleur et, de belle conservation. Sous verre. It included a number of pastels by Pillement which were exhibited in Edward EYRE , of High Street, Marylebone, amateur topographical artist who exhibited at the Royal Academy , he formed a very large collection of old master and modern drawings which were dispersed by Greenwood, London, Inv p. Un dissegno in carta fatto a pastello della B. Floraino, e l'altro una testa d'una donna di mano del Canuti con cornice di legno Intagliata.

Edmond Fatio , of Geneva, architect, historian and collector, particularly of baroque drawings. Principal sale, Geneva, Nicolas Rauch, He owned a pastel by Petitot Lierre. Her posthumous sale included several hundred paintings, mainly historical portraits. Mr Fauquier, Anonymous sale, London, After his death a notice in the Daily advertiser , Lot [Anon. After the suicide of her mother, Isabelle-Blanche Singer, she was brought up by her aunt, Winnaretta Singer, princesse Edmond de Polignac q.

Soon after his death, she married the Hon. Reginald Ailwyn Fellowes , younger son of the 2nd Baron de Ramsay, a banker. Daisy Fellowes wrote several novels, of which Les Dimanches de la comtesse de Narbonne is best known. She became celebrated as a fashion icon for designers such as Chanel and Schiaperelli; Cecil Beaton photographed her and as wealthy hostess in her palace Les Zoraides in Cap Martin in the South of France. Her name was linked with the Prince of Wales before that of Mrs Simpson. Three Perronneau pastels were included in the sale. Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Ader, De Fels also owned the Revue de Paris.

Maurice FENAILLE , de l'Institut, wealthy oil industrialist reputed at an early date to have installed swimming pools in his various homes, as well as owning cars and aeroplanes. He was also an art collector and patron, and wrote monographs on Debucourt, the Gobelins and Jules Guiffrey. Pastels: Luttrell, man In Jules bought a Coypel J. EFC , Paris, Chevalier, JF , Paris, She owned a Perronneau inconnue c. Ferriol had a series of six beauties made in pastel, no doubt by Coypel q. His son Charles-Augustin de Ferriol, comte d'Argental was the friend of Voltaire, who gave him his portrait by de Wyl q.

A correspondent of Proust, she inherited the important library of her uncle, baron Horace de Landau Donato FINI His inventory Rome, In he married Emma, daughter of the art dealer Charles Sedelmeyer q. In he was appointed by Emperor Franz Josef chief commissioner for the fine arts in Austria.

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From Emma was linked with the society gynaecologist Samuel Jean Pozzi. New York, Waldorf-Astoria, Silo, He advised J. He lent pastels to the Paris exhibition. A group of French and English pictures including pastels by Bernard and Hamilton were sold in a group sale, London, Christie's, Some miniatures were sold in the following days. Foreman died in Paris while on his way to the South of France for his health.

Mme A. Paris, Drouot, Baudoin, Royaumont was sold, an the contents dispersed by Christie's, Dictionary , artists, s. Armstrong; Farington; Hoare.


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  • A separate museum was built in to house his collection but was destroyed during the second world war. Mrs Byron C. David-Weill sold in her posthumous sale. New York, Parke-Bernet, Mme Dangeville. FRANC : a large collection of miniatures, objets d'art etc. France wrote his companion a note: "Saint-Quentin. La plus belle promenade que j'aie jamais faite. Their son Giorgio Gioacchino purchased the Ca' d'Oro from the Contarini family in but bequeathed it to the State in together with part of his collection.

    Born in Belgium, he developed the family grain business founded in from a domestic Belgian activity into a multinational conglomerate by opening an office in Chicago in The Continental Grain Company remains one of the largest private companies in the world. Fribourg adopted US citizenship, and devoted part of his wealth to his collection of European and Chinese porcelain and faience, paintings, drawings, boxes, objets d'art and furniture. He was treasurer of the American Friends of Versailles in His estate sale took place in eight sessions.

    Collections, New York, Frick v. Banting, K. Beauchemin, J. Gagnon dir. Belkhodja, C. Traisnel, Labelle, J. Couture et F. Remiggi dir. Bernatchez, S. Bissoondath, N. Blattberg, C. Et si nous dansions?

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    Bosset, P. Boulad-Ayoub et P. Leuprecht dir. Bouchard, G. Battaini-Dragoni, C. Saint-Pierre, G. Nootens et F. Fournier, Bouchard G. Taylor, Bourdin, A. Germain et M. Lefeuvre dir.

    Bourque, G. Duchastel, Elbaz et D. Helly dir. Duchastel, avec la collaboration de V. Armony, Brenner, N. Cantle, T. Chambre des communes, Coderre, D. Connolly, W. Pluralism , Durham, Duke University Press. Frozzini et D. Gratton, Council of Europe, The Intercultural City Step by Step. Courtois, C. Derriennic, J. Eid, P. Labelle, El-Ghadban, Y.

    Emongo, L. White , Facal, J. Frozzini, J. Fourot, A. Gagnon, A. Gagnon et B. Jouve dir. Iacovino, Gagnon, N. Meintel dir. Germain, A. Alain, Dansereau, F. Poirier, M.

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    Alain et J. De Polo, C. Legrand, L. Vidal, L. Ainouche et A.